Essay on the rankings scandal at Claremont McKenna

As the president of a small, selective – and, I hesitate to add, highly ranked – liberal arts college, I’d like to say that I’m surprised by the recent news that Claremont McKenna College has been submitting false SAT scores for incoming freshmen to, among others, U.S. News & World Report for the last six years. And I’d like to say that I believe that whatever the reason for the transgression, we can all rest assured that it’s an aberration, an unseemly and unfortunate action of a single bad actor – in this case a senior admissions official at what is clearly a fine college. Sadly, I can’t in good faith say either of those things.

We should have seen this coming.

But, as history has taught us, the tip of the iceberg is sometimes pretty easy to miss. And what’s below the surface? An entire panoply of sophisticated methods of gaming the system – all on the margins of acceptable practices and mostly, we hope, well clear of the boundary that Claremont McKenna crossed.

For instance, since some ranking formulas rely heavily on low admission rates as a measure of selectivity, it’s not uncommon for colleges to cast the broadest net possible when seeking applicants – with the certain knowledge that many of those applicants will not qualify for admission. Conversely, when calculating the percentage of living alumni who give, it makes more sense to cast a smaller net, leading to wildly different definitions of what constitutes “living” alumni, all for the sake of a higher level of alumni participation.

For years, those of us who are entrusted with the job of guiding places like Claremont McKenna or any other institution of higher education have been playing a dangerous game of chicken with college rankings. Few of us have any confidence in their ability to truly represent what we are all about, or gauge, in any meaningful way, our capacity to transform the lives of those we serve. Yet we – and I include Colby College – continue to participate. But why?

In part because we recognize that, much to our dismay, the college experience has been increasingly commodified over the last decade. Students and families turn to rankings in much the same way we peruse consumer guides before buying a major appliance, comparing models, makes, and features to determine – prior to our actual use – which one will suit us best. In some ways, the White House’s recent proposition to create “easy to read” scorecards for colleges is a logical – and, I would argue, unfortunate – evolution of this process.
But we also participate – and this admission makes me a bit squeamish – because of the tremendous risk inherent in not doing so. It's one thing to believe, as I do, that the tangible difference in being ranked, say, 9th or 29th, is meaningless, and that for many students, the likelihood of personal success has nothing whatsoever to do with rankings of their college. But I’m also sure that, absent collective action, any college that opts out of the rankings game invites potentially negative outcomes. And, as those who have been entrusted to safeguard both the present and the future of the institutions we serve, that’s a risk that few presidents or boards are prepared to take.

Or are they?

Perhaps the time has come for us to admit that we are trying to work within a system that substitutes measures of inputs – how many volumes are in the library, for example, for measures of outcomes – how many graduates have gone on to become useful, productive, and engaged citizens in their communities.
Perhaps the time has come for us to admit that we are trying to work within a system that encourages us to skew our work toward improving our performance in the rankings rather than focusing on our core educational missions; deploy teams of people to squeeze each ranking data point until it screams, rather than take all possible measures to find students who seek – and will truly benefit from – the distinctive experience we each have to offer.

And perhaps the time has come to admit that we are trying to work within a system that is such a powerful corrupting influence on us all that it has the power to make a senior official at a college like Claremont McKenna take the catastrophic professional and reputational risk of fudging SAT data to make already outstanding students look just a shade better.
It’s time for us to take collective action. To speak loudly and clearly and in a single voice that we will not participate in that kind of system.  

We could, as Colby and many other colleges have already done, pledge to no longer use rankings to promote ourselves. But, as well intentioned as these efforts are, they have done little to mitigate the influence of these instruments. Suppose every college in the country stopped participating in these ill-defined measures of quality? And suppose we found new ways to collaborate with those who would rank us, ways that generate information to better help prospective students and their families make an informed decision?

And finally, suppose we all agreed to reclaim our integrity by not playing along with a system that both encourages and rewards deceit?

Now THAT would be surprising.

William D. Adams is the 19th president of Colby College, in Waterville, Maine.

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Kiplinger's Drops Claremont McKenna From Rankings

Kiplinger's has dropped Claremont McKenna College from the magazine's list of the "Best Values in Liberal Arts Colleges," where the college had been No. 18. A statement by the magazine said that recent reports about the college inflating its SAT averages suggested that it had earned its spot "unfairly," and so has been removed. U.S. News & World Report has said that it will calculate the likely impact of the false reporting on the college's rank, but will not issue new rankings.

Colorado Drops SAT for International Applicants

The University of Colorado at Boulder has dropped its SAT requirement for international applicants, The Boulder Daily Camera reported. Officials said that many international applicants reported difficulty finding test centers for the SAT (or for the ACT). However, Boulder has simultaneously moved to increase the minimum score required (from 61 to 75, on a scale of 120) for applicants to achieve on the Test of English as a Foreign Language.


Claremont McKenna Inflated SAT Scores for Rankings

Claremont McKenna College admitted on Monday that it submitted inflated SAT averages to various rankings entities for the last six years, The New York Times reported. College officials said that the scores -- already high at the college -- were boosted by about 10 or 20 points each on the mathematics and critical reading sections. In the most recent data, the college reported a combined median scores of 1410, when the real median was 1400. The 75th percentile was reported as 1510 when it was really 1480. The college said a single individual -- identified by the Times as Richard C. Vos, vice president and dean of admissions -- admitted to inflating the numbers. Vos declined to comment.

Two law schools -- those of Villanova University and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign -- have admitted in recent years to have used inflated LSAT scores to improve rankings.

Robert Morse, who directs rankings for U.S. News & World Report, said this morning that Claremont McKenna did inform him Monday that it had provided incorrect data. But he said that the college declined his requests to provide raw data that would allow for a re-ranking of colleges. He said that it was possible that there could be modest changes in the college's ranking when correct numbers are provided. Morse said U.S. News would recalculate the data for the college, but only when it provided actual numbers, not just a summary with rough figures. (UPDATE: Morse has since reported that the college has made available all of its data.)

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Vassar College is apologizing for an incorrect notification of some early decision applicants that they had been admitted when in fact they were not, The New York Times reported. A test letter indicating acceptance was viewed Friday by 122 applicants -- only 46 of whom had in fact been admitted. The letter was supposed to have been replaced by another for the 76 who were not admitted.


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Study finds that East Asian Americans gain the most from SAT courses

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Students whose families came to the U.S. from China, Japan or Korea are more likely than others to take SAT courses -- and to benefit from them with higher scores, study finds.


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