The discussion of gender and science can take place on many levels. Some focus on issues of bias in who gets to do science. Others use much broader definitions, looking at the impact of gender on scientific questions and findings, as well as on who leads the research enterprise. A new collection of essays, Gendered Innovations in Science and Engineering (Stanford University Press), takes the broader perspective.
Interviews with 80 female faculty members at a research university -- the largest qualitative study of its kind -- have found that many women in careers are deeply frustrated by a system that they believe undervalues their work and denies them opportunities for a balanced life. While the study found some overt discrimination in the form of harassment or explicitly sexist remarks, many of the concerns involved more subtle "deeply entrenched inequities."