I spent a recent weekend interviewing blow-your-socks-off-smart applicants for my biology department’s Ph.D. program. I was uncertain how to respond to their need for reassurance about the future of American science. Since then, I’ve continued to reflect on what to say to the next generation of scientists, and what their collective decisions mean for the future of science and the economy in the United States. How do I reassure such bright young people as they decide whether to start their careers during an administration hostile not just to scientific integrity and independent inquiry, but seemingly to science itself?
How will we keep America’s reputation for scientific innovation if aspiring applicants to Ph.D. programs decide to forgo science or find that opportunities are reduced or constrained because of new federal policies? The anxiety I see in them is the first nick to the reputation of American universities and national laboratories -- regarded by most people as the best in the world -- a reputation that is now being harmed, as is the country’s economic competitiveness. Unless the statements and actions from the new administration change quickly, such weekends at universities across America this spring will, like our recent weekend, be overshadowed by dismay, disorientation and fear instead of the usual mix of optimism and excitement about future careers in scientific discovery.
Ordinarily, I am cautiously optimistic when confronted with potentially troublesome news, but continuing pronouncements from the Trump administration imposing gag orders and grant freezes on scientific government institutions have left me rather pessimistic, at least for the near future. Never in my 32 years as a university scientist have I experienced such high-level disregard from our government for expert information -- indeed, for facts of any kind -- and for the contributions of foreigners to the economic engines driven by scientific and technological research. This disregard, this disdain, for facts is troubling enough on its own. But for scientists it strikes at the very heart of our enterprise: working within constraints that require rigorous, logical evaluation of information before any conclusions are published or promoted.
A generous interpretation of what’s been occurring in these first months of the new administration is no longer possible. While it is normal for new administrations to issue gag orders for a temporary settling-in period so that new priorities for programs and external communications can be set, it is obvious that the new policies coming out of the Trump White House are lining up with base and baseless campaign rhetoric denying the strong scientific consensus on climate change, the values of environmental protection and the contribution of immigrants -- including Muslims -- to our nation’s scientific enterprise and economic innovation.
It is imperative that university faculty and the public are not distracted by the reckless stream of pronouncements coming from the White House. Behind the tweets, substantial long-term damage is quietly being inflicted on the integrity of science and therefore on the formulation of effective policies for improvements in medicine, technology and environmental management -- with negative long-term consequences for human welfare and our economy. Those potentially staggering changes are occurring by both omission and commission and at both ends of Pennsylvania Avenue, thanks to similarly minded congressional GOP leadership.
The strong bipartisan support for environmental protection that prevailed for most of the last 50 years -- which gained the greatest momentum under President Richard M. Nixon -- is giving way to the fictions that environmental quality is not linked to human health and that environmental improvements always come at the cost of economic activity. Of course, policy making requires always requires balancing competing priorities, but what is being set in motion by the new administration can hardly be described as a rebalancing of trade-offs.
For example, House Bill 589 would limit funds for climate research at the national laboratories where some of the world’s greatest advances occur in understanding how our planet’s climate works and relates to the extremes of weather that pose such an increasing threat to our coastal cities and infrastructure. Think of the experience of California in the last year -- switching from the worst drought in recorded history to some of the worst flooding.
House Bill 673 would prohibit American contributions to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which has been a model of global scientific consensus building, and which has in turn fostered international policy cooperation vital to future human welfare. That same bill would prevent future contributions by the United States to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Green Climate Fund, which could be the most economically efficient way to adapt to changing climate globally. We can help vulnerable countries prepare for continuing climate change now, or we can deal with climate-driven conflicts and refugee crises later. The relentless civil war in Syria has its roots partly in drought-induced internal migrations of farmers and in food insecurity.
Closer to home, Scott Pruitt, administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, and Rick Perry, U.S. secretary of energy, are the antitheses of the scientists, including Nobel laureates, who have led such agencies in past Republican and Democratic administrations. Pruitt, who spent much of his career as Oklahoma’s attorney general suing EPA, is dismissive of overwhelming data on the value to human health of EPA’s efforts to reduce air and water pollution. He and Trump have vowed to reverse the EPA’s Clean Power Plan.
Furthermore, a combination of executive and congressional actions have demolished the U.S. Department of Interior’s Stream Protection Rule, as well as its rule to reduce leaks of methane from natural gas wells. Methane is a far more potent cause of climate change than carbon dioxide.
Finally, House Bill 861 would terminate the EPA entirely. Not only do these actions not add up to a recipe for clean air and clean water, which the president purports to support, but they also are in fact a direct assault on human health.
The administration’s disregard for science is also manifest in what has not been done. No one has been nominated for most senior positions usually occupied by scientists, including the science adviser to the president and the administrator of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (an agency that provides most of the weather data used by most news broadcasts in the country). At this same point in most recent administrations, most of these vital positions had been filled. Scientists are being omitted from decision making, even while decisions are rolling back the effectiveness and use of American science.
The lack of leadership on scientific and environmental issues couldn’t make China happier. Currently leading the United States in the use of renewable energies, Chinese competitors of American companies in renewable energy technology see new markets and expanded prosperity opening up to them. The same can be said for European competitors. What the Trump administration fails to realize is that technology doesn’t just build engines; the scientific enterprise is itself an engine that creates jobs from the lab to the land -- an economic multiplier with extraordinary reach. According to a recent National Science Foundation report, “Asia now accounts for 40 percent of global research and development, with China as the standout.” Given the trajectory of the current administration, the United States will not be first for much longer.
Good reputations take a long time to earn but can be destroyed quickly. That is true for individuals, institutions and countries. Intellectual capital and scientific programs take a long time to build. The current candidate pool for faculty jobs in my department has a higher than usual number of scientists with strong careers in national laboratories. The ongoing exodus of prominent, highly motivated scientists from national laboratories and other agencies portends a potentially quick decline for the quality of policy-relevant federal research.
So what should I have said to the worried Ph.D. candidates, and what will I say to the postdoctoral candidates from Australia, Canada and Germany who I am currently interviewing?
Do not let the relentless onslaught of tweets distract you. Do not respond in kind.
Keep your eyes and ears on the people who are being appointed and on what policies are actually being considered. Become engaged in your scientific society to amplify your scientific voice. Advocate for the value of scientific information.
Without anger, with patience and practicing humility, engage in civil discourse about what we scholars have been privileged to spend our lives learning: scientific practice is rigorous and winnowing; facts are hard won; science produces reliable information; and in the long run, human health and happiness depend on effective and efficient environmental protection. Encourage your representative to spend a few days breathing the air in Delhi or Beijing if they seem to doubt that.
Do not pretend that scientific information often leads clearly to any particular policy action. Rather, acknowledge that many other considerations are required in democratic decision making, but that scientists are not merely another special interest. Advocate for science and scientists to be appointed to high positions and sought out for their information and advice.
Make it clear that, ultimately, truth and civility must prevail.
David M. Lodge is the Francis J. DiSalvo Director of Cornell University’s Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future and a professor in Cornell’s Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology.
The estate of a distinguished professor emerita of art history professor at the University of Kansas donated $1.1 million to the institution, to support its Spencer Museum of Art and the study of art history, the Lawrence Journal-Worldreported. The gift brings Marilyn Stokstad’s total lifetime gifts to the university to more than $2.3 million. Stokstad died last year at age 87, but the university announced her most recent donation last week.
“Stokstad had a profound impact on the Spencer Museum of Art through her leadership, scholarship and progressive ideas. She focused her life, resources and formidable intelligence on works of art and their role in education and human experience,” Saralyn Reece Hardy, museum director, said in a statement. “We are especially honored that she chose to support aspects of the museum that help us sustain opportunities for publishing scholars and provide a welcoming space for bringing art and people together.” Stokstad, who specialized in medieval and Spanish art and wrote widely used textbooks, began teaching at Kansas in 1958 and retired in 2002.
In an essay in Salon, Raymond Crossman (right), president of Adler University, revealed that he is HIV-positive, making him perhaps the first college president to disclose such a status. In the essay Adler compared President Trump's treatment of disadvantaged groups to how President Reagan treated those with HIV and AIDS as the epidemic spread.
"I have lived with HIV for about 30 years, and yet this disclosure is a new one for me to offer in my professional life. I am a university president who has been out as a gay man across my career, but up until now, disclosure about my HIV status has been on a need-to-know basis," Crossman wrote. "Why am I making it public now? Because of the parallels between then and now. In 1985, the president not speaking one particular word caused us injury and death. In 2017, the president speaking many incendiary words is causing injury and death."
Imagine if Apple’s Board of Directors consisted entirely of former customers. Older directors have fond memories of buying their first Apple computer in 1980 (the much-loved Apple IIe), which they used more for playing Castle Wolfenstein than for doing homework. A few directors grew up with the Macintosh, drawing with MacPaint and playing The Ancient Art of War. Several younger directors rocked out in the early 2000s to the 1,000 songs that fit on their first iPod. They all love Apple products and, out of dedication and nostalgia, accepted invitations to join the board.
It sounds silly, right? But this is how private colleges and universities select their boards of trustees. In choosing trustees, private colleges and universities pick satisfied former customers, i.e., successful alumni. Often, this is a requirement in the institution’s bylaws and consistently advantageous for fund-raising. Alumni agree to serve on the board with the best of intentions, wanting to “pay forward” all that their alma mater has done for them. These are civic-minded and generous people who had a wonderful experience and are committed to providing the same caliber experience for current and future generations of students.
But apply the private college model to Apple. Would this be a model for good governance? Would the board of Apple aficionados have the relevant expertise to evaluate and approve the necessary investments that allowed Apple to invent the iPhone? If the Apple board were overly influenced by the Apple IIe or the Mac, guidance to management may have reflected conservatism that would have kept the company in the personal computer business rather than transforming it into the leader in mobile and entertainment. Neither Apple, nor any other corporation, nor any other nonprofit organization, selects its board in this way.
Private college and university boards are full of brilliant, accomplished people with expertise in a range of fields. But too often their vision for the institution is rooted in nostalgia. A university’s mission in 1980, as experienced by a student, may restrict the vision of the university in 2017, and what it could or must become by 2050. Most obviously, what might have worked when tuition was $5,000 may not work when it’s $50,000. And what might have worked to get students good jobs when only 10 percent of American adults earned bachelor’s degrees may not work when over 30 percent do.
In addition, the focus on alumni keeps many colleges and universities from matching organizational needs against the experience and competencies of potential directors. Today, every board of every college and university ought to have professionals with demonstrated expertise in data analytics, education technology, research funding, employability and the labor market, and, where applicable, hospital management and athletics -- not to mention teaching and learning methods and outcomes.
Relevant expertise is essential to ensure appropriate governance, like asking the right questions at board meetings and -- most important -- making sure the board agenda is set to focus on the most important challenges and opportunities and not merely those senior managers want to discuss. But in selecting alumni, an institution often ends up with a board comprised of the wealthiest or most celebrated alumni, without regard to the fact that their fields of achievement are unrelated to the pressing needs of the institution. It’s as if the celebrity brand or ranking focus that afflicts so much of higher education also infects the alumni trustee selection process.
Securities regulations require that public companies have independent directors. All private colleges and universities receive public funding in the form of Pell Grants and Stafford Loans. In addition, they all aim to advance the public good. So private colleges and universities should be required to diversify their boards by adding a significant number of highly qualified independent directors -- directors with no prior affiliation with the school -- to challenge traditions that no longer work, including academic cultures that may no longer be in sync with market realities.
What we mean is not director independence in the technical sense, as defined by the NYSE, but rather emotional independence: directors without emotional or sentimental attachment clouding their decision making or vision. If the Department of Education does not demand as much, perhaps state attorneys general will.
Higher education is facing a triple crisis of affordability, completion and employability. Nowhere is this clearer than at private colleges and universities -- particularly smaller, nonelite institutions without significant endowments. There is no silver bullet for any single institution; strong governance will be required to make it through the storm. These schools need forward-looking directors making decisions based on real facts, not alternative facts or nostalgia.
If American higher education is to lead the world in this century, as it did in the last, our universities must invent higher education’s version of the iPhone: a new model to educate the next generation more efficiently and effectively. So let’s make our boards more like the real Apple board. While current college and university trustees have the best intentions and development efforts necessitate their continued involvement, only by adding independent experts to boards will private colleges and universities get where they need to go.
Ryan Craig is managing director of University Ventures, an investment firm. David Friedman is an associate professor who teaches corporate governance at Willamette University College of Law.
Wilkes University, in Pennsylvania, has announced that it is ending face-to-face programs in Mesa, Ariz., although online programs will continue to be offered, The Arizona Republic reported. Wilkes said interest was stronger for its online than in-person offerings. Mesa had recruited five private colleges to start offering programs in the city, but Wilkes follows Albright College and Westminster College of Missouri in ending programs there.
St. Olaf College is removing the name of the late Reidar Dittmann from a campus building after receiving "credible evidence" that he engaged in sexual misconduct over the course of his career there, The Star Tribune reported. Dittmann taught art and Norwegian at St. Olaf for more than 45 years and died in 2010. The allegations surfaced in the last year as part of an effort by the college to reach out to victims of sexual assault. When several allegations were made, the college conducted an investigation and confirmed details of some of the allegations, and so decided it needed to remove the Dittmann name from the building.
David Anderson, president of the college, said, “You reach a point where you have a sufficient degree of evidence that’s credible and verifiable and comes from multiple sources …. Then you’re in a tough spot. Are you going to say, well, because the alleged perpetrator is deceased, we’re not going to take any steps, even though we have this very high degree of certainty of what happened? Or, knowing what we know now, we can’t go forward with that name on the building.”
Family members of Dittmann issued a statement that said in part, “The allegations of sexual misconduct from decades ago deeply trouble his family, many members of whom proudly attended the college and grew up with it as an integral part of our lives. We abhor sexual misconduct without exception, but we are also devastated by the impossibility of due process for the person we knew and loved.” The statement also criticized “the process used to indict our father posthumously; the haste with which the college reached its conclusion; and finally, the public humiliation our family is experiencing as a result of the college’s communications of their actions.”