Once again familiar issues were raised: the need to define and discover ways to prove consent, disagreements over “no means no” vs. “yes means yes” standards of proof and preponderance of evidence vs. beyond a reasonable doubt standards, plus the necessity of evolving definitions of rape.
The Internet was on fire with comments.
Meanwhile the greater concerns went largely unaddressed. What motivated the decisions these two made and what have educators, especially those in colleges and universities, done to discourage or encourage the hypersexual culture in which students live?
Seventy percent of Americans report having had intercourse by age 19; 6 percent of children have had similar experience by age 13. MRIs have taught us that adolescent and postadolescent brains are prone to engage in risky behaviors, yet these numbers seem disproportionate given all we have tried to teach about the dangers of premature sexual activity.
Shouldn’t we wonder then what, beyond testosterone and peer pressure, makes a bright young man about to enter Harvard University on a full scholarship choose to participate in a school tradition that he must know has the potential to destroy his future?
And what does it mean when a teenager, sobbing on the stand, tells the court, “I didn’t want to come off as an inexperienced little girl …. I didn’t want him to laugh at me. I didn’t want to offend him.” How did we get to the point where she would say she laughed during their encounter because she “was trying to be cool”?
If I had a hundred-dollar bill for every young woman who has visited my office in the last 15 years with statements like hers or complained about a roommate who tied strings or rubber bands on the doorknob to signal “keep out -- sex in progress,” I could finance a very opulent vacation or two.
For years we have talked about alcohol, unscrupulous males and disengaged institutions as instrumental in the crises on campus. People like me have added “lecherous professors” to the mix. Much of that is true. But not all sexual violence involves alcohol, not all males are sexually aggressive and not all institutions are disengaged.
And, whether some like to admit it or not, the majority of young women are capable of taking responsibility for their own decisions and safety. The protests on campus demonstrated that collegians can have the strength and courage to stand up for themselves and can act as role models for those less likely to do so. Infantilizing emerging adults is itself a form of victimization.
So what have we missed about the sexual assault problem while the number of college sexual violence complaints has increased more than 1,000 percent since 2009?
Despite the growing number of response and prevention efforts by colleges, we have overlooked the realities of change and culture. The values many of us knew as graduate students and young professors are gone forever, and our students are reaping the rewards -- and the dangers -- of a hypersexualized culture. Nothing will ever be the same.
Our responsibilities are to cope with what we have been given and attempt, insofar as we are able, to serve as adult role models and behave like professionals. Professionalism demands that we respect and protect students by differentiating between legitimate and shock curriculum and pedagogy.
The times are especially precarious for the young. In Breaking Her Fall, the poignant story of a father struggling to come to grips with his drunken teenage daughter’s giving oral sex to a group of males, Stephen Goodwin’s protagonist ruminates on the lives of contemporary girls:
“Buffalo jumps. I’d been reading about Montana. And I kept thinking about the Buffalo jumps, the cliffs over which the Plains Indians drove the herds of buffalo, slaughtering them in great numbers. That was what was happening to the girls … I saw them acting out the roles defined for them in the thousands of commercials and TV shows and popular songs and movies … When I tried to make sense of it all, it seemed to me that the girls were as helpless and confused and panicky as the buffalo must have been as they stampeded over the precipice, that in all the noise and din they lost their bearings, that they had no idea of the dangers of the plunge they were about to make.”
Author Rachael Simmons once commented, “In a culture that can’t decide who it wants them to be, girls are being asked to become the sum of our confusion.” And if we are truthful, that observation also applies to young men who, like contemporary females, struggle to understand what is expected of them in a culture so hypersexualized that a 15-year-old girl alone with a physically aroused boy recalls she “didn’t want to come off as inexperienced.”
The young people we see today are light-years removed those in the 1920s who took the first steps toward our sex-frenzied society when the automobile made it possible for dates to leave parents behind, and we will never gain control of the assault problem unless we come to terms with the changes that have occurred since that early time.
Alcohol and male libido are not the heart of the problem. Whatever Owen Labrie did, he did because he believed he could. When the girl agreed to meet him, she believed she should. And both acted, at least in part, because, as Marshall McLuhan declared in 1964, “The medium is the message.”
Since concerns about sex-related problems emerged on campus in the 1970s, we have traveled through time and I Love Lucy, Happy Days and All in the Family to messages from Sex in the City, Dating Naked and Mad Men -- to say nothing of erotic vampire activity in productions like True Blood.Millennials have never known a culture without media like this, and whether or not they act on what they have seen and heard, they bring cultural messages with them to campus.
Many of my current freshmen have recently seen The Diary of a Teenage Girl, a film adaptation of Phoebe Gloeckner’s novel. Wildly praised by critics, it depicts a 15-year-old who offers her mother’s 35-year-old boyfriend sex and enjoys the experience so greatly she sets out on an erotic romp -- all with no seriously adverse consequences. Mom’s boyfriend isn’t sleazy or degenerate. The men to whom she gives oral sex while pretending to be a prostitute aren’t dangerous or dissolute. Friends welcome the self-confidence her awakening sexuality produces. In the end the she turns out more or less OK. No disease. No violence from strangers. No humiliation. She’s discovered her sexuality. She’s fine. The message is clear.
Vanity Fair recalled Salon’s review of Gloeckner’s novel as “one of the most brutally honest, shocking, tender and beautiful portrayals of growing up female in America” and added that when the teenage heroine “strides onto movie screens this weekend, it will mark the arrival of the first real-life, modern heroine for teenage girls -- ever.”
Stressing the “urgent need for films like Diary of a Teenage Girl,” other websites described the film as set “amongst a freer period of sex and drugs,” and Vanity Fair echoed that curious time warp observation: “Flash forward and today seems prudish, even downright hostile to sexually adventurous young women.”
Whose America, whose real-life modern heroine and what current “prudish” culture may be a matter of dispute. But sex makes money, and maybe most critics have either never had or taught teenage kids or don’t understand the effects the media has on adolescent behavior, especially for young people at greatest social and economic risk
The millennials with whom we have worked for the last two decades are about to leave us. The media is the message, and it has told them how to be. What will become of their successors remains a matter of speculation. Obviously, hypersexual culture and student physical urges are here to stay, but if today’s young people have become “the sum of our confusion,” we must at some point consider whether we are complicit with films, television, advertisements and other commercial enterprises that contribute to the confusing and even dangerous messages they have received.
Regardless of slight rhetorical variations, college mission statements are almost identical in expressing high-minded goals. We are all committed to inspiring students to reach the heights of intellectual and emotional development, to pursue excellence and lifelong learning, to exhibit tolerance and respect for diversity, to serve and sacrifice for their communities and mankind, and to develop the skills and abilities required in the workforce and our ever-changing global economy.
'All This and Hookups, Too'
All this and hookups, too. In The End of Sex, Donna Freitas observes that “friends with benefits” relationships allow students “to get sex onto the CV without addressing any additional burdens, ensuring that they don’t miss out on the all-American, crazy college experience they feel that must have. They have been taught to believe the hookup culture is normal, that everyone is enjoying it and that there is something wrong with them if they don’t enjoy it too.”
I must admit I had never heard of organized BDSM groups that engage in role-playing of bondage, dominance and submission, and masochism until I consulted on a case in which a student a quarter century younger than the professor with whom she had had a brief affair died from alcohol abuse in his condominium. His classes were, in part, popular because he entertained his undergraduates in psychology with a speaker from a BDSM group.
Then too I have difficulty comprehending how professors requiring students to keep journals of their masturbation and other sexual behaviors are teaching skills and abilities required in the workplace and the ever-changing global economy.
In humanities departments, where enrollments continue to decline drastically, there are often too few students to justify study of great philosophers or Shakespeare (even though the Bard could be quite bawdy), but there are seldom enough desks to accommodate collegians in human sexuality courses.
Some humanists are catching on slowly but surely, though. “It’s like that line from the movie: ‘If you build it, they will come,’” one professor told me. “Put sex in the title, and the kids will fill the seats.”
No one is suggesting that most courses concentrating on sex issues lack academic substance. I hope my own classes of that type have genuine merit. But the challenge institutions face in meeting students’ appetite for sexually oriented material is to prevent an overabundance of offerings that send a message that sex is the all-consuming focus of education and life.
The other task is to recognize that institutional review of course content and pedagogy are essential. Academic freedom is a red herring if it is used to violate the stated mission and ethics of an institution. Postadolescents freed from restrictions are vulnerable to the obsession with sex that already pervades their lives, so professors and administrators have an obligation to ensure institutional priorities are academic rather than driven by enrollment and finance.
If we care about students as much as we profess, we might also take second looks at dormitory situations. When we relinquished the burden of in loco parentis responsibility, we placed much of the weight on students themselves, and this does not always work well.
Sometimes the most unlikely student changes under peer pressure in the hypersexed campus culture. A character in Tom Wolfe’s I Am Charlotte Simmons offers insight into collegiate existence when she tells the novel’s heroine, “College is like this four-year period when you can try anything and everything -- and if it goes wrong, there’s no consequences …. College is the only time your life, or your adult life anyway, when you can really experiment, and at a certain point, when you leave, when you graduate or whatever, everybody’s memory like evaporates …. There’s no record and you leave college exactly the way you came in, pure as rainwater.”
She might be right about experimentation and lack of consequences. Greek housing and off-campus apartments offer invitations to “try anything and everything.” Dormitories should be different, but students everywhere tell stories of rules unenforced by youthful residence hall counselors, of vomit that decorates restrooms and halls after wild weekends, and of roommates' visitors who overstay their welcome for nights and days at a time.
The pressure to appear “cool,” to avoid “coming off as an inexperienced little girl” or an unsophisticated male means that compliant students are especially vulnerable and reluctant to protest being locked out for whatever time it takes roommates to complete the sex act. So they remain silent, however inconvenienced they might be. More egregious are the tales of those who engage in sex with roommates present.
This is not to say we have the right to eliminate so-called sexual expression. That would clearly cause student insurrection. But institutions do have the right and the responsibility to demand that students express their sexuality without inconveniencing or embarrassing others.
If our primary constituency is emerging adults and they wish to be treated as adults, then our message should be that while on campus, students must behave as adults. Simply put, normal adults do not require friends and neighbors to loiter on their porches and do not invite them into their bedrooms while they are having sex.
Owen Labrie and his unnamed classmate will inevitably be forgotten by the public, St. Paul’s School will recover, as educational institutions across the country have outlived sex scandals, and the media will move on to another sensational -- perhaps even more salacious -- story. But the messages colleges send will, for good or ill, have lasting effects.
Submitted by Jake New on September 10, 2015 - 3:00am
The faculty union at Rutgers University on Wednesday urged the university to investigate whether its football coach, Kyle Flood, intimidated and bullied instructors while communicating with them about the grades of football players. Rutgers is already investigating whether Flood violated university policy when he allegedly contacted a part-time lecturer about an F grade that was assigned to a player. That player was declared academically ineligible in the spring and was recently dismissed from the team after being charged with aggravated assault, riot and conspiracy to commit riot.
"The Executive Council of the Rutgers AAUP-AFT full-time faculty union urges the university to carry out an investigation that includes all possible communications between Coach Kyle Flood and the instructors of football players, with particular attention to possible intimidation or bullying of vulnerable, contingent faculty," the faculty members stated in their resolution. "All instructors are entitled to academic freedom in research and teaching, including in the assessment of students’ work. Academic freedom is an essential component of quality higher education and the freedom for faculty members to assess students’ work without external pressure is an essential component of academic freedom."
Indiana University will invest $300 million over the next five years in a Grand Challenges research program aimed at solving some of the planet’s most urgent problems. Up to five large-scale research projects will be selected for funding, based on their potential impact on the state of Indiana, its economy and the campus. But the projects, such as those related to international water supply issues, energy availability, infectious diseases and climate change, will have global implications. They’ll involve interdisciplinary research and new partnerships with nonprofits, industry and government. The university announced Wednesday that it is seeking preliminary proposals from faculty teams for the first two Grand Challenge grants, to begin next year. The initiative will be paid for through a combination of donations, existing university funds and reallocated planned expenditures, and other sources.
The University of Iowa Faculty Senate has voted "no confidence" in the Board of Regents, The Iowa City Press-Citizen reported. Faculty members said that they were ignored in the process of choosing the university's new president, particularly when they urged the board not to select one of the four finalists, and then the board went on to select him. That finalist is Bruce Harreld, who was selected while lacking experience in higher education. The resolution adopted by the Faculty Senate said that the board showed a "blatant disregard for the shared nature of university governance."
After the vote, Bruce Rastetter, the board's president, issued a statement criticizing the Faculty Senate's action. "The landscape of higher education is changing and the current ways of operating are not sustainable," the statement said. "After listening to all stakeholder feedback as well as having frank conversations with each of the candidates, the board unanimously thought Bruce Harreld’s experience in transitioning other large enterprises through change, and his vision for reinvesting in the core mission of teaching and research, would ultimately provide the leadership needed. We are disappointed that some of those stakeholders have decided to embrace the status quo of the past over opportunities for the future and focus their efforts on resistance to change instead of working together to make the University of Iowa even greater."
Some colleges are encouraging students to get newly available vaccines for meningitis B, The Wall Street Journal reported. Several colleges distributed the vaccine last year when hit with a case or cases of meningitis, which can be fatal, on campus. Some of the cases are of a new strain that is not prevented by earlier vaccines but that is by new types of vaccines. This fall's efforts are coming before outbreaks, in a new prevention strategy.
Sam Houston State University announced Friday that it will not punish Monica Foy, a student whose Twitter comment has infuriated many and led to calls that the university punish her. Foy posted a comment on Twitter, for which she has since apologized, after the execution-style murder of a Texas police officer while he as pumping gas into his patrol car. Her tweet: "I can't believe so many people care about a dead cop and NO ONE has thought to ask what he did to deserve it. He had creepy perv eyes."
Dana G. Hoyt, president of the university, released a statement explaining why the university would not act against Foy, even if "the public's outrage was understandable."
Wrote Hoyt: "The path of least resistance would be to take disciplinary action against Ms. Foy …. But the legal rights conferred on every American citizen and the code of conduct that governs SHSU students says otherwise. A personal comment made on a private social media account, as offensive as it was, remains protected by the First Amendment. Offensive speech is protected speech. As an institution that is responsible for educating generations of students in criminal justice and the order of law, we must stand behind those teachings."
The U.S. Department of Justice announced Thursday that it has reached an agreement with the University of Nebraska at Kearney that will assure the right of students with psychological difficulties to have support dogs in campus housing. The department sued the university over the issue in 2011. The settlement requires the university to change some policies and to pay $140,000 to two students whose requests for support dogs were denied. “This is an important settlement for students with disabilities not only at UNK but throughout the country,” said a statement from the principal deputy assistant attorney general, Vanita Gupta, head of the Civil Rights Division. “Assistance animals such as emotional support dogs can provide critical support and therapeutic benefits for persons with psychological disabilities."
The university has denied any legal wrongdoing in the case, and has maintained that it was only this suit (and a judge's earlier ruling on it) that clearly said that the Fair Housing Act applies to housing run by colleges and universities. The university also said that the settlement preserves the right of a college to inquire about the need for having a support animal.