Ivy Tech Community College, a statewide community college system in Indiana, has been facing questions from legislators about what they perceive to be low graduation rates. Now Ivy Tech is facing the possibility that the State Workforce Innovation Council could cut off federal funds that the college receives through the Workforce Investment Act, The Journal Gazettereported. The state council has minimum completion rates, both for short-term and long-term programs, and Ivy Tech has some programs that are not meeting those minimums. At the same time, council officials said that they are reluctant to cut off Ivy Tech because it provides so much of the state's training.
The College of DuPage isn't the only community college outside Chicago facing scrutiny over its ethics. The Chicago Tribune reported that South Suburban College has been awarding no-bid contracts to companies whose leaders or owners are on the board of the college's foundation. For example, Cindy Doorn, the foundation's vice president, has a plant and landscaping company that has done $343,000 in business with the college. Foundation officials said that there was nothing wrong with no-bid contracts because the companies have done good work.
Up to 35 million Americans have enrolled in college at some point but failed to earn a degree or certificate. A new report from Higher Ed Insight, a research firm, tracks the challenges adult students face when they return to college. The 69-page document is an evaluation of the Lumina Foundation's adult college completion work. It seeks to describe what works with this population, in part by looking at local, state and national partnerships that bring together higher education and employers to better serve and engage returning adult students.
Several key changes in policy and practice would benefit these students, according to the report. They include:
Access to advisers who are capable of addressing adult students' complex needs;
Student services that are available during nontraditional business hours, or online;
Additional sources of financial aid, particularly at the state level;
More transparency about transfer credit policies, including before students enroll;
Flexible course scheduling, online courses and innovative degree-completion programs;
Access to opportunities to earn credit for prior learning.
There's more bad news coming out of College of DuPage, outside Chicago, after an internal audit revealed that the chair of the two-year institution's board violated the college's ethics policy by helping political allies win seats on the board.
The Chicago Tribune reported that then Vice Chairwoman Katharine Hamilton publicly endorsed candidates and worked on their campaigns earlier this year. She also used her board title in campaign literature. Three candidates who were "handpicked" by Hamilton helped her gain control of the board, according to the Tribune.
When those three candidates -- Deanne Mazzochi, Frank Napolitano and Charles Bernstein -- won the April election, they made up a new majority with Hamilton, who then became the chairwoman. The new board also voted to place President Robert Breuder on paid administrative leave pending the outcome of state and federal investigations.
Kalief Browder -- one of my college’s students -- died June 6, 2015.
He took his own life.
Sadly, he never recovered from the experience of being imprisoned without bail for three years beginning at the age of 16, at Rikers Island, a New York City jail. He awaited a trial that never was because the charges were eventually dropped. Released at age of 19 and deeply scarred emotionally, he came to Bronx Community College of the City University of New York with the intention of becoming a productive member of our society. Enrolled in Future Now, a program for previously incarcerated students, he obtained a high school equivalency diploma and started as a liberal arts major last fall. Kalief completed 11 credits. While he struggled at first, he was doing much better this spring, when he finished the semester with eight credits and term grade point average of 3.562.
He was 22 years of age when he died. For Kalief we represented hope. Our campus served as an intellectual oasis for this fragile mind; his prospects of a good life were becoming defined and real.
Bronx Community College is located in the 15th Congressional District. It currently holds the distinction of being the poorest congressional district in the United States. The correlation between poverty and crime is well-known. The majority of our students are from this district and this neighborhood. They are different and unique from the students at four-year institutions and those at many other community colleges nationwide. If BCC is an emblem of hope in the Bronx, Rikers, as another city-run operation, is an emblem of despair. As a society, we must find a way to help these young people rather than letting them rot in jail until they are so damaged that nothing we do can save them.
Our hearts are broken today for Kalief. He represented who we are as a college, a place where many people who are wounded by the vicissitudes of life eventually find their way. We do save lives. But Kalief’s death reminds us that we may not always be able to resolve the internal struggles that members of our community are facing. We never know what demons lurk within our students’ minds.
Last year, the World Health Organization reported that 800,000 people die as a result of suicide worldwide every year. Forty-one thousand of those suicides occurred in the United States, a number that WHO indicates may be low due to underreporting and misclassification. WHO also reports that there are indications that for each adult who dies of suicide, there are likely to be more than 20 others attempting suicide. It remains the second leading cause of death among 15- to 29-year-olds. Suicides of college students get much attention in the media, but most of the articles are about those at residential, four-year colleges.
Community college students are vulnerable. Many come to us with emotional burdens created by difficult situations. Students who did not do well in high school come to the community college expecting to have a reprieve from the mistakes they made in high school. They believe that coming to a community college is a second chance at doing what they, their parents and perhaps even society expect of them.
Some come believing that they don’t belong but hope that, somehow, something great will happen to them. Suddenly, a light will turn on, and their lives will be changed forever. Others come understanding that they have the ability but that their study habits need to improve. Others come because people in their lives made them attend -- parents, family members or even a court order. Yet others come to save money so that they can afford to finish at their school of first choice. Many, usually adult students, come to be trained for a well-paying job after recognizing that their present lot in life is a dead end. Many students who themselves are children have children. Many are working one or two jobs and attempting to attend college on a full-time basis.
Some, like Kalief, were previously incarcerated. Others are undocumented and afraid. At Bronx Community College, just as is the case at other community colleges, we welcome all who are willing to work for a better life. They are real heroes in our present-day society, for in spite of all the problems they face, their grit, their determination, their willingness to make sacrifices so as to have a better life for themselves and their children drive them to succeed. The American Dream may be lost for some but it is alive and well for this population of students.
The current emphasis on outcomes rather than enrollments at the community colleges is yielding results. People are paying attention to providing effective academic and student support services for these students. The successes of programs such as CUNY’s ASAP, LaGuardia Community College’s learning communities, Queensborough Community College’s Academies and many others have created a flurry of attention on the type of pedagogy needed to move these students more effectively through the curriculum. And, little by little, we are winning the battle against ignorance. Graduation rates are inching up, retention rates are improving.
Concomitantly, when we accept students under our open admissions policy, we accept the responsibility to address their educational and emotional needs. If we are to improve our graduation rates, we must put in place effective programs that address the myriad of problems affecting our students. We must attend to the fragile minds of damaged students. We must turn the academic and student support services upside down. The traditional model works well for selective colleges but not for community colleges. We must spend time and treasure diagnosing students’ problems upon admission and we must create a “prescription” to address them as they progress through the curriculum. The term in loco parentis takes a different meaning at the community colleges.
Private philanthropy is answering the call. Kalief was part of Future Now, a program for previously incarcerated students that helped him get a high school diploma and provided peer mentoring, internships and individual tutoring. For 15 years, with the generous support of foundations and individuals, we have been helping students between the ages of 17 and 21. This program is a lifeline. But we need more. We must make the case for adequate support to help our students.
May Kalief rest in peace.
Eduardo J. Marti is interim president of Bronx Community College of the City University of New York.
The National Student Clearinghouse Research Center released a new study today that shows more than 60 percent of students who earned an associate degree when they were 20 years old or younger went on to earn a bachelor's within six years. For all students who earned an associate degree, 41 percent finished a bachelor's degree within six years.
The research backs claims that a degree from a two-year institution will help pave a path toward a bachelor's degree. The study also found that it took on average 2.8 years for students with an associate degree to earn a bachelor's.
"Measuring the extent to which certificates and associates degrees serve as stepping-stones to higher educational awards is critical to understanding today's educational pathways," said Doug Shapiro, executive research director of the center, in a news release. "These first credentials are increasingly the entry points of choice for disadvantaged and first-generation college students, making them important to questions of equity in postsecondary degree attainment."
A New York State appeals court on Tuesday unanimously found that the City University of New York was within its rights to adopt its Pathways program, which focuses on the structure of the curriculum to allow community college students to transfer with credit to four-year colleges in the system and complete bachelor's degrees in four years, Capital New York reported. Faculty members have complained that CUNY failed to meet obligations to involve professors in the process. CUNY has maintained that it did involve faculty members and that the university had the right to move ahead. The appeals court found that the university did not violate any requirements. It is unclear whether the faculty union, which sued, will appeal the decision.
The Public Policy Institute of California released a report Tuesday identifying successful online courses in the state's community colleges.
Success was defined as having at least 70 percent of students earning a passing grade, and if student performance is at least as good as face-to-face versions of the same course. The study also defined success as when students in an online course continue to do well in subsequent same-subject classes either online or in a traditional setting.
The study found about 11 percent of online courses in 2013-14 were "highly successful" and they varied widely from one another. The courses were successful due to their design and the way they were delivered to students, although there wasn't a systematic pattern in online course success.
"This dispersion suggests that the factors determining online course success occurred neither at the college level, the subject level nor at the course level. Instead, success was determined in individual course sections. Design and delivery of online education in California's community colleges is idiosyncratic, depending primarily on the initiative of individual faculty members operating within the constraints and resources of their departments and colleges," the report said.