Tenured and tenure-track faculty members at the College of Southern Nevada voted 263 to 126 to form a union affiliated with the American Association of University Professors, they announced Monday. The college said in a statement that its looks "forward to moving ahead with the collective bargaining process."
A group of professors known as Faculty Against Rape has deep concerns about the American Association of University Professors’ recent draft report arguing that some interpretations and applications of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which prevents sex-based discrimination in education, threaten academic freedom. “As it stands, we are troubled by much of the framing, content, unrepresentative nature of, and failures of accuracy within, the draft report,” reads an open letter from the group to the AAUP.
“The overall impression given by the report is that the Department of Education’s Office [for] Civil Rights is ‘overreaching’ in its mandated mission of providing guidance to universities and ‘abusing’ Title IX; this, despite the fact that there is broad underreporting of campus sexual assault by universities,” the letter says. “While we would ordinarily join with the AAUP in resisting the corporatization of institutions of higher learning, we are deeply concerned that the AAUP’s analysis of this issue as it pertains to Title IX, by pitting student concerns for campus safety against faculty interests, reinforces the symptoms instead of addresses the problem.”
Faculty Against Rape says it does support the report’s recommendation for more funding for programs and departments that “analyze how sex, gender, power and advantage operate,” but it requests that AAUP not release draft reports to the media before seeking broader input from its members and subject matter experts. It also includes a number of suggestions for improving the report, including by ceasing -- in the group’s view -- to conflate “the actions of the [civil rights office] with specific university actions in a few specific cases, while ironically, ignoring the much more frequent retaliation against students, staff and faculty as sexual assault survivors, allies and advocates.”
Faculty Against Rape plans on sending its letter to AAUP today. Risa Lieberwitz, a professor of law at Cornell University and chair of the AAUP report committee, said via email, "We welcome all comments on the AAUP draft report and will carefully consider those submitted by [Faculty Against Rape]. As the AAUP draft report explains, universities should effectively address and prevent problems of sexual harassment while fully protecting academic freedom and due process. We do not argue that speech can never create a hostile environment, nor that all speech is protected, only that matters of speech in the university always require attention to academic freedom. The report criticizes both the OCR and university administrations for failing to adequately protect academic freedom and due process. The report also offers recommendations for developing, through shared governance, fair and effective policies that pertain to sexual harassment."
A transgender adjunct professor of English is suing Saginaw Valley State University for sex discrimination for allegedly taking away her administrative position after she began presenting as a woman. According to the suit, filed this month in a Michigan federal court, Charin Davenport has taught at the university since 2007, when she was still presenting as a man. She took on a second, part-time job as coordinator of academic tutoring services in 2011 and was named assistant director of academic programs support in 2012, reporting to Ann Coburn-Collins, director of academic programs support.
Davenport received strong performance reviews, the suit says, until 2013, when she informed the university that she was undergoing a gender transition and intended to dress as a woman from then on. She asked her colleagues for support, but Coburn-Collins made negative comments and told Davenport that she must have had too much free time on her hands, according to the suit.
Coburn-Collins stopped talking to Davenport and two months later informed her that her administrative job was being eliminated for budgetary reasons, the complaint says. When Davenport tried to talk to her former supervisor about what had happened, Coburn-Collins allegedly called her a liar and threw an unspecified object at her, and said that Davenport disgusted her.
Davenport says she lost the job in retaliation for her transition, not budgetary reasons, as stated, and she is seeking an unspecified amount in damages and lost wages. Neither Coburn-Collins nor a Saginaw Valley State spokesperson immediately responded to requests for comment, but the university told The Daily Beast, “We are aware of the lawsuit and we are confident that we will prevail in court, as all the facts come out. SVSU does not tolerate discrimination of any kind. … We support all our students, faculty and staff, including those who are members of the LGBT community. We have a Pride Center on campus to serve those individuals and to contribute toward an inclusive campus environment.”
Scholars, scholars everywhere and no professor to pick. Cornell University took heat last fall for posting an unusually vague job ad for a professor showing “outstanding promise” in “some area” of the humanities or social sciences, with special consideration of “members of underrepresented groups, those who have faced economic hardship, are first-generation college graduates, or work on topics related to these issues.” Critics took to Twitter, simultaneously making fun of the ad and wondering if it was a hoax (it wasn’t).
One applicant has now been told the search that applied to an exceptionally broad pool of scholars has yielded no hires. The university, meanwhile, says the search has, in fact, resulted in a hire.
“I’m writing to inform you that our search did not yield a successful candidate to match our specific research needs,” reads an email sent to one applicant Tuesday by the office of the dean at College of Arts and Sciences. “We received many qualified applicants from our pool and we surely passed by some talented individuals. We wish you well in your future endeavors.”
The applicant, who did not want to be identified in any way due to an ongoing job search, called the decision disappointing. “Who knows if they’ll run the search again, or even if they’ll break it up into a series of smaller, more specific searches …. I think elite institutions are in a very privileged position: in a shrinking market, many seem to be able to run failed searches without any repercussions.”
Karen Kelsky, an academic job consultant who runs the blog The Professor Is In, still jokes about the original job listing and didn’t express surprise that the search may have been unsuccessful. “It was a preposterous ad that said something like ‘We want a scholar in any of 25 disciplines.’ There is simply no way to create a short list when the criteria are removed entirely from any kind of clear departmental, disciplinary or programmatic context. It’s comparing apples, oranges, sliced ham and … garden shears.”
Cornell, meanwhile, says the search did lead to a hire. John J. Carberry, spokesman, said in a brief statement Wednesday evening that he couldn’t confirm the rejected applicant’s statement because “this ad did result in a successful hire for the college.” No additional details were immediately available.
While most social scientists write about their own experiences and worldviews to some degree, some consider scholars whose work falls into mainstream topics of inquiry to be more respectable than those who study more marginalized issues such as ethnic studies, women’s and gender studies, and queer studies. As such, scholars studying such marginalized topics must overcome a number of obstacles to be taken seriously and for their work to be deemed relevant to their field.
In particular, recent commentaries have criticized scholars who engage in “me studies” -- the investigation of issues that are closely related to the researcher’s own identity or otherwise play a prominent role in their own life. Highlighting what he views as the shortcomings of studying the “oppression” of one’s own group, Joseph Heath, a professor of philosophy at the University of Toronto, for example, has suggested that such research can essentially invalidate a scholar, calling into question the training, professionalism and the quality of their work.
Yet even the classic works philosophers often revere were produced by scholars oppressed by the social and political systems they analyzed. From thinkers during the Enlightenment to scholars of black political thought, some of the most powerful intellectual contributions to society have been generated by so-called me scholars.
In social science, the category of me scholars would capture a great number of thinkers who devote their time and skill to grappling with questions related to justice and equality. As actively engaged me studies scholars, studying identity-related inequalities in human rights and citizenship, we cannot help but notice that marginalizing scholars who embrace this type of research would replicate the marginalization that they typically face in the academy and in society more broadly.
Professionalism and the Question of Rigor
Heath and others have also contended that scholars who ostensibly research their own identity and oppression may receive less-than-rigorous evaluation when presenting their research. The claim that scholars of me studies are treated gingerly and thus produce lower-quality work is the most troubling critique. Me studies are among the most vigorously tested social science scholarship that we have encountered, and they are widely regarded as making valuable contributions to our understanding of society. (See also, for example, writings by Matthew Evangelista, former chair of the department of government at Cornell University, on the relevance of peace studies, a field that has faced similar criticisms surrounding its rigor.) These studies do, indeed, benefit from careful vetting and criticism -- from scholars who identify with the me group as well as those who do not.
It is also important to consider the implications that follow from the common claim that political correctness precludes certain questions when evaluating and critiquing a me study. Just because a me scholar studies oppression related to race, gender or LGBT politics, for example, does not mean that they are prohibitively sensitive to constructive criticism. Nor does it mean that the questions they research necessarily reflect their personal views or interests.
Take, for example, the study of social movements. A common research design examines the emergence of Movement X in Context A but not in Context B. Despite the fact that social-movement scholars sometimes study an oppressed group with which they identify, that identity should not shield them from the type of careful criticism of research design that is part and parcel of high-quality scholarship. Nor should it preclude a critical observer from asking any relevant question. Scholars can and do critique the theoretical insights, research design, methodology and data collection of me scholars.
Do other scholars who encounter me scholarship shy away from asking tough questions as a matter of political correctness? Critics argue that a fear of offending could result in a disruption of the academic tradition of peer review and critique, preventing colleagues from offering the constructive criticism that is part of our collegial responsibility as faculty members. While we do not doubt that some scholars may feel a measure of discomfort when critiquing the work of colleagues who study the oppression of groups from which they hail, we would dispute the notion that scholars fail to actively engage with them. To the contrary, me scholars benefit from first-rate mentoring and are subjected to the same vigorous criticism that would meet any work of scholarship.
Let us not forget that, like their counterparts, scholars who study their own oppression must successfully clear hurdles of academic course work, methodological training and blinded peer review. In fact, they may encounter more intellectual challenges and obstacles than others in their efforts to obtain the knowledge and skills necessary to achieve entry into the ranks of professional scholars. The irony is that, once there, they are often relegated to second-class citizenship by virtue of their commitment to taking seriously issues like inequality, discrimination and oppression.
The Ghettoization of Me Studies
Failure to appreciate the value of me studies provides a powerful example of intellectual hegemony in the academy. Although the academy has been enriched by the work of me scholars in areas like ethnic studies, women’s and gender studies, and queer studies, research shows that topics of study concerning oppressed groups are both marginalized and dismissed. In the area of LGBT scholarship, for example, a 2010 study revealed that more than 20 percent of international relations scholars felt that LGBT topics were not acceptable for study within their subfield, despite the rapid global changes surrounding LGBT rights during the last decade. That signals to me scholars that their research has to be above the benchmark to be taken seriously in the field.
And while such evidence suggests that me scholars struggle to make their voices and research heard, they often occupy the margins of academic spaces like conferences and other venues. Mainstream conferences often have special me panels, consisting of papers on a certain group, even if other, broader panels would provide a more suitable platform to engage people doing more theoretically similar work.
To be critically engaged, the topics of me studies research should have a more prominent place at the table. We would argue that the problem is not that me scholars are getting a free pass. Rather, it is that broader disciplinary environments often fail to fully engage those doing identity-related work. Furthermore, bringing me studies questions to the table would also attract non-me studies scholars to also study these important topics.
The Danger of Dismissing Me Studies
It would behoove us in academe to take seriously the benefits of me studies research. Coupled with vigorous training and readily available constructive criticism, studying topics one identifies with may yield particularly robust scholarship -- not weak or otherwise compromised analysis as critics suggest. (A multitude of scholars have made this point methodologically. See, for example, here, here, here and here.)
Consider, for example, qualitative research, where firsthand understanding of a group may enhance a researcher’s ability to connect with research subjects. Moreover, a shared identity may promote richer data analysis, facilitating analytical insight that could be lost on others. In quantitative studies, contextual knowledge can make sense of intriguing findings.
That is not to say that topics and issues involving oppressed groups should only be studied by oppressed people. Rather, we simply hope to debunk the notion that scholars of me studies produce low-quality work that makes negligible contributions.
Social science research has the capacity to help improve society. Lawmakers and citizens, more broadly, draw upon our work to inform their understanding of crucial topics like inequality, behavior and social change. If we invalidate me studies scholars and dismiss the value of their work, who will carefully analyze issues related to their marginalization? And, given that academe has far to go in terms of its diversity, will we simply ignore these issues until a critical mass of different, “neutral” -- and therefore “qualified” -- and interested interlocutors emerges?
The fact is that me studies scholars continue to produce broadly valuable, intellectually rigorous research and, thus, do a great service to the academy. Rather than quibbling over the value of me studies, our time would be better spent thinking about the implications of dismissing this type of work for social science and the scholars who engage in it.
Phillip M. Ayoub is an assistant professor of politics at Drexel University. Deondra Rose is an assistant professor at the Sanford School of Public Policy at Duke University.