Arizona State Puts Lawrence Krauss on Leave

Arizona State University this week suspended Lawrence M. Krauss, a well-known physicist and skeptic, pending an investigation into sexual harassment claims against him dating back to 2006 and recently detailed by BuzzFeed. “In an effort to avoid further disruption to the normal course of business as the university continues to gather facts about the allegations, Krauss has been placed on paid leave and is prohibited from being on campus for the duration of the review,” the university said in a statement.

The Center for Inquiry also said this week that it would break ties with Krauss, citing its zero-tolerance policy on harassment. In so doing it joined a number of other organizations to limit contact with Krauss since the allegations -- including groping and inappropriate comments -- came to light last month. “Serious allegations have been raised … and we suspend our association with him pending further information,” the center said on Twitter.

Krauss denies the allegations, none of which relate to his current role at Arizona State. He published a statement refuting each claim in detail and taking issue with BuzzFeed’s overall reporting. Arizona State “has placed me on paid administrative leave, as per normal procedure, while it reviews claims arising from the BuzzFeed article,” he wrote. “The story represents a series of largely anonymous hearsay claims against me that were countered by at least an equal number of presentations of counter-evidence by numerous individuals and two reputable academic institutions.”

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Academics' experiences in unfamiliar situations can help them better understand students (opinion)

I recently ventured into unknown waters by scuba diving after years away from the sport. It was ultimately an exhilarating experience, but getting there proved unexpectedly challenging. The dedicated help of experienced teachers was essential to my regaining the confidence and skills required for successful dives.

That experience has given me a more visceral appreciation for the challenges that college students from populations traditionally underrepresented in academe must surmount. Since my administrative responsibilities include overseeing support programs for diverse student cohorts, I am trying to put this perspective to good use. I hope that my experience may prove helpful for colleagues with similar responsibilities.

Poolside Lessons

Given the time since my last open-water dive, a refresher course in a swimming pool was required. I assumed this would be straightforward, given my prior experience.

Then I flubbed Instructor Alex’s very first question: What is the most important thing to maintain while diving? Situational awareness, I said. The correct answer, vital to survival, is breathing.

Moreover, as Alex took me through the essentials, I realized that scuba gear had changed markedly since I first qualified as a diver. The revisions all enhanced ease and safety, yet the changes made me feel disoriented and underprepared.

I also felt a certain degree of pressure to succeed. My husband and I had added vacation days to a business trip specifically to dive at this renowned site, where the ocean reefs lay deep enough to be accessible only by scuba.

Looking back, I can see analogies to the situation of college students who are the first in the family to attend college or belong to a population that is underrepresented on campus. After four years mastering the patterns of high school courses, such students may be expecting college to be similar. Discovering that very different time management and study skills are required in the new environment may come as a shock. A great deal is riding on the outcome: fulfilling familial dreams, achieving career plans, paying back loans. Initial setbacks may, thus, be deeply disquieting and sow doubts in students’ minds about whether they belong in this environment.

Deeper Lessons

As the lesson progressed, Alex helped me relearn how to assemble and operate the diving gear: tank, buoyancy compensation device, breathing regulators, air pressure gauge, weight belt, mask and snorkel. While the components were familiar, their use was no longer instinctive; I would need to think through every action step by step.

Then we entered the chilly outdoor pool. Two meters below the surface, I became deeply conscious of my loud and constrained breathing, the weighty viscosity of the water and the tunnel vision imposed by the mask. I felt increasingly unsure of my ability to relearn the skills needed for the open-water dives.

Sensing my disquiet, Alex suggested that I stand on the pool’s upper shelf, breathing through the regulator, and immerse my face at will. In shallow water with plentiful air nearby and with my ears in the air so my breath did not reverberate, remaining focused was far easier. I could suddenly recollect how much I used to love to “fly” underwater, my buoyancy device keeping me effortlessly suspended and my flippers impelling me ahead at top speed.

Alex took me through the rest of the lessons carefully, explaining what we’d do, demonstrating and then having me do it. That established a predictable rhythm, and watching him do the drills showed that the steps were straightforward enough for me to follow. He held me to high standards and made me redo anything I didn’t accomplish well the first time.

Near the end, we practiced how to enter the water from a boat. Alex explained both what to do and why -- distinguishing true pitfalls from misconceptions and myths. I felt the cognitive load from the initial stressful immersion lift under the mounting number of successful drills we had completed.

The last drill was an emergency ascent. Here, I noticed a mismatch between what Alex had told me the drill would involve and what he signaled when we were underwater. Because everything else had matched perfectly, I had the confidence to halt the drill and ask how to proceed.

As I reviewed the lessons during the ride to the dive site, I appreciated how important Alex’s patient and predictable teaching patterns had been for helping me set aside my fears. By helping me build skills and confidence, he enabled me to prepare to take the next steps on my own.

That kind of focused attention and well-designed teaching is exactly what colleges and universities need to provide to students from at-risk populations: teaching and advising that address the psychosocial as well as the academic dimensions of students’ lives.

First Open-Water Dive

Knowing that I was apprehensive about my first open-water dive, Dive Captain Ben promised to guide me down to the reef. Since the other divers in our group were more experienced, I was glad to know that I would not be expected to keep up entirely on my own.

When the boat reached its anchoring point, I drew on the poolside lessons and completed the pre-dive checklist, despite the disconcerting motion of the waves. Floating at the surface, I was glad to see Ben appear beside me as promised. He faced me, and we grasped arms to stay together as we descended, flippers first, toward the reef.

Falling away from sunlight into the cool depths of glassy, gray water while my exhaled breath bubbled upward, I was acutely aware of the alien surroundings. It was immensely comforting to see a human face, even with the masks between us. Ben’s calm eyes and graceful movements reminded me that this environment was one he thrived in and dedicated his life to sharing with others as a leader and teacher.

When we reached the reef 15 meters down, Ben signaled me to check my gear while floating in place. Only after confirming that I was prepared and seeing me gesture a confident “OK” did he release me to the care of his assistant.

Having been guided safely into the depths and encouraged to exercise my revived skills, I was able to focus my attention outward -- and was immediately rewarded by a surfeit of visual delights: coral slumping like melted Dalí plates, shy rays departing at our advent, slow-swimming turtles and darting fish streaked with color. My eyes trained on the endless living seascape, I rediscovered the joys of flying above the reef, reveling in the low-gravity environment.

That experience illustrates how important it is for students who are unfamiliar with college and advanced academic work to interact directly with educators who demonstrate concern for their learning and exude confidence in their ability to excel. By modeling good learning practices and guiding students to follow them, such teachers build students’ self-efficacy and enable them to become intellectually fascinated by what they are learning.

Continuing to Learn

With such a wondrous first experience on the reef, I anticipated equal enjoyment for our morning dive the next day. Instead, while descending alongside the other divers, I found myself panicking. My breathing felt constrained, my lungs half-empty. I could not convince myself that my gear and skills would keep me safe.

The other divers -- suspended about me in the water and absorbed in checking their equipment -- appeared calm, competent and inaccessible. Moreover, scuba divers, their mouths stopped by breathing apparatus, cannot readily converse. I was alone with my fears in the midst of a dozen companions. Worried about losing control later in our trek when we would be far from the dive boat and an ascent would put others at risk, I decided to abort.

Waiting in the sunlit launch, anchored by gravity and comforted by plentiful air, I deduced what had happened. It was the breathing. My panic arose from the way scuba gear constrains a diver to breathe only by mouth and from feeling that I could not inhale deeply. Back on shore, Ben confirmed that less experienced divers often fail to exhale with sufficient gusto to empty the lungs for a robust new inhale.

Having understood the sources of my fear, I felt able to re-enter the water for the afternoon dive. Luckily, Ben was back with us. He had me practice proper breathing techniques during the boat ride out to the reef and while floating at the surface before diving. As a result, I was able to descend without incident, take my turn peering at half-hidden lobsters and eels, and swim through a rocky arch festooned with coral.

Returning to basic skills, analyzing what caused me to feel out of my depth and continuing to work with a skilled teacher was essential for getting me back on track. Similarly, sustained, active coaching is necessary to support the academic success of college students who are encountering unexpected challenges.

In conclusion, universities strive to help their students become capable scholars, develop the capacity to tackle unfamiliar challenges and orient their education toward meeting life goals. For students adjusting to an alien environment, those tasks can feel overwhelming. If one doubts one’s capacity to succeed, then every error or obstacle looms large.

My experience as a diver has vividly reminded me how crucial it is for our students to be supported in several interlocking ways. They need patient, experienced teachers who can help them bridge from mastering core skills to grasping the beauty of advanced concepts. They need campus settings that enable them to relax sufficiently to reflect, seek advice and plan to meet challenges. And they need us to consistently communicate that we are confident they can succeed.

Elizabeth H. Simmons is executive vice chancellor of academic affairs at the University of California, San Diego.

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College says professor is on leave after telling Asian-American family 'go back to your home country'

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Literature nonprofit brings a book club to the workplace

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No Agreement Among Reviewers of Grant Applications

A new study in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences finds little to no agreement among reviewers of grant applications to the National Institutes of Health. After replicating the NIH’s peer-review process, researchers analyzed 43 reviewers’ ratings and critiques of the same 25 grant applications. After eliminating weaker proposals, reviewers did not agree on the applications’ quality in either their quantitative or qualitative evaluations. Reviewers also differed in how they translated applications’ strengths and weaknesses into a numeric rating. The study’s authors say that the reviewer ended up having more to do with a grant application’s success than the proposed research. 

“We’re not trying to suggest that peer review is flawed, but that there might be some room to be innovative to improve the process,” co-author Elizabeth Pier, a postdoctoral fellow in educational psychology at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, said in a news release. Among other changes, Pier and her co-authors recommend a modified lottery system, in which weaker proposals are eliminated and the remaining applications are funded at random.

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U Wisconsin-Stevens Point to Eliminate 13 Majors

The University of Wisconsin at Stevens Point plans to address “fiscal challenges” by expanding some academic programs and discontinuing others, it announced Monday. Tenured faculty positions are at stake, with possible layoffs occurring by 2020. 

Programs pegged for closure are American studies, art (excluding graphic design), English (excluding English for teacher certification), French, geography, geoscience, German, history (excluding social science for teacher certification), music literature, philosophy, political science, sociology and Spanish. 

Currently enrolled students in closing programs will be able to conclude their degrees. Courses will continue to be taught in the affected fields, and minors in English, art, history and philosophy, among others, will remain, according to the university. 

Stevens Point’s proposal must be reviewed by a campus governance committee, the campus chancellor and the University of Wisconsin System Board of Regents. 

“Because possible program elimination may result in the layoff of some tenured faculty members, a new UW Board of Regents policy will be followed,” the university said in a statement, referring to a controversial change to the circumstances under which Wisconsin’s universities may terminate tenured faculty members -- made possible by a similarly controversial 2015 change to state law backed by Republican governor Scott Walker.

"If we accept the need for change, and we confront and solve the financial issues currently facing the institution, we can create a new identity for the regional public university,” Greg Summers, provost, said in the statement. “Stevens Point can move forward with fiscal stability, new opportunities to build programs and grow enrollment, and renewed capacity to improve our service to the students and communities of central and northern Wisconsin, which are complex, diverse and ever changing.”

Stevens Point says it faces a deficit of $4.5 million over two years because of declining enrollment and lower tuition revenues.

Programs up for expansion include chemical engineering, computer information systems, conservation law enforcement, finance, fire science, graphic design, management and marketing. Others include aquaculture, captive wildlife, ecosystem design and remediation, environmental engineering, geographic information science, master of business administration, master of natural resources, and doctor of physical therapy.

Summers said the recommendations demonstrate a growing student preference for majors with clear career pathways. “Stevens Point is committed to strengthening our academic offerings while improving our liberal arts core to ensure students graduate with the knowledge and skills they will need to be successful in the future,” he said. 

Ed Miller, longtime professor of political science at Stevens Point, told Wisconsin Public Radio that he was not expecting the announcement.

"I was personally surprised about the radicalness of the change," Miller said. "We do live in a democracy, and universities are supposed to be preparing people to participate in a democracy, besides participate in the work force, although that’s certainly important."

Miller said students in his department learn how to think critically and end up succeeding when they graduate.

"Our majors have done well in the job market, plus getting into graduate schools -- not just in political science, but in public administration, city management and certainly law schools, so we have actually had lots of success since I've been here,” he said.

Professors on other campuses reacted to the announcement on social media, expressing concern. 

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Tips for starting off at a new job (opinion)


You need a plan for the start of a new job, writes Saundra Loffredo.

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