Researchers survey the landscape of internationalization of higher education

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Researchers survey the landscape of internationalization in higher education.

Expanding opportunities for minority students to study abroad (essay)

The Changing Face of Study Abroad

“Me? Study abroad? I thought that was for rich white girls who wanted to get drunk in Paris on Daddy’s dime.” That was a response made by a first-generation African-American student at the University of Texas at Austin who was approached about studying abroad. Unfortunately, it is a common perception among many low-income, first-generation students of color about the purpose of study abroad and who has access to international opportunities.

According to the 2014 Open Doors data that the Institute of International Education released, students studying abroad are at an all-time high. In the 2012-13 academic year, 289,408 American students studied abroad, which is more than double the number of students who studied abroad 15 years ago. Even still, less than 10 percent of American students are studying abroad, which is disproportionately low compared to the increase in the number of international students coming to study in America.

As many alumni of study abroad programs will attest, studying abroad is one of the most reflective and intrapersonal ways of gaining the knowledge, skills and mind-sets to be successful in the modern global economy. It teaches students how to solve problems, think creatively, adapt to cross-cultural situations and reflect on their own biases and archetypes.

Just recently, a new study commissioned by the European Union found that students in Europe who study abroad are more likely to find jobs and reach management positions. In addition, research by IES Abroad, an organization that has offered more than 1,200 study abroad courses, found that graduates of a four-year college or university in the United States who have studied overseas have earned, on average, higher salaries. As Allen E. Goodman, the president and CEO of IIE put it, international experience is one of the most important components of a 21st-century résumé.

If international experiences are indeed becoming increasingly important to being competitive for jobs, it is vital to examine the racial disparity in access and participation in study abroad programs. In the past five years, black students only accounted for 5 percent of all students studying abroad. Similarly, Hispanic and Asian students made up only 6 percent and 8 percent, respectively, of students going abroad.

Some initiatives, like Generation Study Abroad and Diversity Abroad, are already tackling this issue by dispelling myths about study abroad and making international opportunities more accessible through scholarships and internships. These are useful top-down approaches that address diversity in study abroad in broad strokes.

Yet another method of increasing students of color engaging in international experiences is through a grassroots approach at individual colleges and universities. A faculty-led study abroad program at the University of Texas at Austin is one such example.

In a collaboration between the Division of Diversity and Community Engagement and the Study Abroad Office, Leonard N. Moore, a professor of history and senior associate vice president for campus diversity, and I have led study abroad trips to Beijing and Cape Town for the past three years. The programs have attracted primarily low-income, first-generation students of color, and have brought many students to destinations where they never thought they would go.

What’s the secret to getting underrepresented students to study abroad? Here are seven key ways in which higher education institutions can get more students of color to invest in international opportunities:

  • Encourage popular faculty members who have strong relationships with students of color to lead study abroad programs. Many students who traveled abroad on the trips said they cared more about who was leading them than where they were going.
  • Actively target and encourage underrepresented students to participate. Many of the students in the program indicated they would have not applied had they not been contacted and explicitly told about the benefits of this study abroad program. With certain students who were more resistant, Moore persistently encouraged them until they pulled the trigger and hit “submit” on their application.
  • Ensure the faculty leader has a predeparture orientation. Moore was able to market his program to students because he went to Beijing for a week to evaluate the residence halls, facilities and sites. He could testify with credibility about what the students were going to see and do in China.
  • Focus the program on a topic that will make students more marketable in the workplace. Many students of color perceive study abroad as an expensive field trip with no tangible benefits. Make sure that study abroad topics are student centered and advertised in a way that will explicitly show the professional development experiences to be gained.
  • Keep the length of study abroad programs manageable. Most of the students said that they would not have participated in the program had it been any longer because it would have conflicted with their degree plans. In addition, they could not have afforded it. UT’s study abroad programs occupy only half the summer, so students can still take summer classes or complete an internship during the second half.
  • Prioritize diversity and work with other university units to provide scholarship opportunities for students. Our program was able to attract and retain students of color because the university, study abroad office and various academic support programs for diverse students worked closely together to recruit and work with underrepresented, low-income and first-generation college students.
  • Provide some form of financial assistance or scholarship. At UT, institutional and external grants made that possible. Several of the students still had to take out loans or find other methods to finance the entire study abroad trip. But they ended up going because the scholarship monies they received made the experience financially manageable.

According to Moore, “the amazing thing is that every student we bring abroad will come back and tell their brothers, sisters, cousins, classmates and friends about the time they had to use gestures to order food off a Chinese menu, or the time they got lost on the subway and they had to find their way back. These stories are the ones that will change the rhetoric around who can and will study abroad.”

In fact, since the inception of these programs, students have returned month after month to tell us how their international experiences informed their personal and academic lives. One student discussed how she was more understanding of the language barrier her international teaching assistants struggled with. Another student decided to major in a foreign language because he realized how marketable those skills could be in building his own business. These stories demonstrate the power and impact of encouraging diverse students to study abroad.

Charles Lu is executive director of the Gateway Scholars and Summer Bridge programs at the University of Texas at Austin.

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Expanding opportunities for working-class students to study abroad (essay)

The Changing Face of Study Abroad

Much of the student travel at my former institution, a traditional liberal arts college, involved semesters at Oxford, or in Florence, or maybe someplace with easy access to Australian beaches. At my current place, a teaching-intensive public institution where students are mostly Pell-eligible, first-generation or students of color (and many are all three), international study can be just as important. But it often takes very different forms.

More than 90 percent of the students at my institution grew up in this region and will spend their working lives here. Most have never been out of the country, and many have never left southern New England. That means that we have to create quite different travel opportunities for our students than does the liberal arts college down the road, whose students are much more likely to have passports.

What I explain to job candidates when they come through my office is that our longstanding connections with other countries and their higher education institutions tend to be mission centered. Now, that's not a phrase that many new Ph.D.s have encountered at their graduate institutions. The mission at a doctoral institution doesn't tend to be a topic of discussion for graduate students, and I'm not sure how much missions differ amongst R1 institutions. (I see that my alma mater's mission indicates its desire to be a "world leader in professional, medical and technological education").

But at my regional comprehensive university, we take seriously the official mission of the institution to "support and advance the economic and cultural life of the region" as well as the mission enshrined in the university's strategic goals: that the university "serve as an agent of social justice, instilling in all members of the university community a deeper understanding of the impact they have on the greater good and our world."

Part of my job as a dean is to help job candidates and new faculty members understand that strategic goals and mission can actually mean something. So when I try to sell them on the opportunity to take students abroad, I frame it in terms of our campus understanding of social justice. We take students every year, especially from our College of Education and Allied Studies, to Belize to work with the ministry of education there on a program to keep children and teens in school.

Meanwhile, biology majors and others go to Cambodia every year to work on clean water issues and do some English teaching. Anthropologists take students to Trinidad to work with community organizations on reforestation. Students go to, and come from, Cape Verde, where my university has played a key role in helping to establish the University of Cape Verde -- thanks to our former president, the son of Cape Verdean immigrants who has close ties both to our large local Cape Verdean population and the island itself.

What I want candidates to understand is that some of those trips may be in-and-out voluntourism, but all of them are part of a larger campus ethic not of noblesse oblige but of diversity and social justice -- and at a public institution. That's different, I think, from diversity and social justice goals at a private, tuition-dependent institution. When a public institution, with annual tuition and fees of $8,000, talks about diversity and social justice, it means offering a food pantry for its own students as well as offering students opportunities to serve others. We can't arrange study abroad opportunities that only privileged students can take up. We have to set up short-term trips so that students don't have to miss too much time at their jobs. And we have to try to subsidize the expenses, or we violate our own values.

Three of the faculty members in my college are trying to arrange a study tour to South Africa for our students. They have great ideas about it, involving studying nation formation and monuments and all kinds of historical and cultural investigation that can make for a great student experience. I went to South Africa myself this winter (on my own dime, not on state money), and I worked on setting up some contacts for us at the kind of institution that lines up with our students and our mission. But the toughest thing about setting up a way to take our students to South Africa will be figuring out how to get the costs down to a level at which our average student could think about going.

I'd be interested in hearing from readers about ways you make study abroad opportunities work for low-income students. Travel scholarships? Work opportunities that enable students to save for travel? Cost-saving arrangements with international universities?

I genuinely believe that if you can get students out of the country when they are 19 or 20 years old, their identities change. They become people who travel -- for the rest of their lives. And, goodness knows, we need more people who aren't afraid to go out and learn about someone else's culture.

Students who are at more elite institutions have many opportunities to do that, and their educations are the richer for it. Think about how much study abroad opportunities could enrich the undergraduate experience of the hardworking, not-so-privileged students who attend a regional public institution.

Paula M. Krebs is dean of the College of Humanities and Social Sciences at Bridgewater State University, in Massachusetts. On Twitter, she is @PaulaKrebs.

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Letter Details Persecution of Turkish Scholars

The Middle East Studies Association’s new letter to Turkish government officials raising concerns about the “pattern of persecution” against scholars who signed a petition opposing military actions in Turkey's southeast includes a “nonexhaustive” nine-page appendix documenting instances in which signatories have faced repercussions, including in the form of criminal and university-level disciplinary investigations and suspension and termination from academic positions.

"The astonishing scope of the prosecutions, disciplinary investigations and campaigns of private harassment directed against the 1,128 signatories of the peace petition is staggering," says the letter, from the association's Committee on Academic Freedom. "We have never before amassed such a record of violations of academic freedom and freedom of expression in such a short period in the history of our activities in defense of academic freedom in the countries of the Middle East."

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Crash Kills 3 African Students at Manchester U

Three Manchester University students from Africa were killed and a fourth was injured early Sunday after being struck by a van along Interstate 69 in Indiana, the Associated Press reported. The students were standing outside their disabled vehicle when they were struck by the van, whose driver has been charged with reckless homicide and driving a vehicle while intoxicated.

According to a message from Manchester’s president, the crash killed Nerad Grace Mangai, Brook M. Dagnew and Kirubel Alemayehu Hailu. A fourth student, Israel Solomon Tamire, is being treated for injuries at a Fort Wayne, Ind. hospital. The students all came from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, with the exception of Mangai, who came from Jos, Nigeria. Mangai and Dagnew were both sophomores majoring in biochemistry. Hailu was a first-year medical technology major at the private Indiana college, which enrolls about 1,500 students.


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Turmoil on Israel's Council for Higher Education

Six members of Israel's Council for Higher Education announced that they were resigning from the body, potentially preventing it from making decisions as it now lacks the required membership of 19, The Jerusalem Post reported. The resignations were a protest over the actions of Education Minister Naftali Bennett, who leads the council. He recently ousted the vice chair of the council and pushed through his own candidate for the position. Critics say that Bennett's candidate was not, as is custom and some believe required, a full professor at a research university.

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Congressman Talks Human Rights at NYU Shanghai

A U.S. congressman who has held hearings on China’s influence on U.S. universities and academic freedom issues raised by partnerships between American and Chinese universities gave a speech at New York University’s Shanghai campus on Tuesday in which he criticized China’s human rights record.

"Over the past several years, I hear the same thing -- human rights conditions have gotten worse," U.S. Representative Chris Smith, a Republican from New Jersey, said in written remarks distributed by his office. "Human rights lawyers are 'disappeared' for simply trying to represent the poor and vulnerable. Labor rights advocates are targeted, academics and students muzzled, civil society and ethnic minorities increasingly are viewed as a security threat."

Smith said he visited NYU's Shanghai campus at the invitation of Vice Chancellor Jeffrey Lehman, who testified at a June hearing the congressman chaired on academic freedom issues raised by American universities developing campuses and partnerships in China. 

"As a university committed to exploring ideas from multiple perspectives, we were pleased to welcome Rep. Chris Smith, the first sitting member of the U. S. Congress to visit the NYU Shanghai campus since its inception a little over three years ago," Thomas Bruce, NYU Shanghai's senior counselor, said via email.

"Smith spoke with passion and vigor, and the multinational audience, comprised of NYU Shanghai's faculty, staff and students, was equally passionate and vigorous during a lengthy, challenging question and answer session," Bruce added. 

The event was open only to the "NYU Shanghai community," and not the general public.

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Students Burn Artwork, Vehicles in Escalation of U Cape Town Protests

Student protestors at the University of Cape Town on Tuesday night burned artwork, set a shuttle bus and a research vehicle on fire, and petrol bombed the vice chancellor’s office, according to the university. Eight students were arrested and six suspended.

The night of vandalism began after students associated with the Rhodes Must Fall movement refused a university request to move a shack they had erected to protest what they describe as discrimination against black students in the allocation of university housing. The university -- which had asked students to move the shack to an alternative location, citing traffic blockage and safety concerns -- denies claims of discrimination and says that three-quarters of students in university housing are black. Cape Town reports having 6,800 beds, enough for about a quarter of its 27,000 students.

The Rhodes Must Fall movement coalesced at Cape Town last spring around a successful effort to bring about the removal of a statue of Cecil John Rhodes, the British imperialist and diamond magnate who donated the land for Cape Town's campus, and describes itself as a “student, staff and worker movement mobilizing against institutional white supremacist capitalist patriarchy for the complete decolonization of UCT.” The group posted on its Facebook page a link to an Eyewitness News video showing police dispersing protesters with stun grenades and rubber bullets.

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Manitoba Ed School Keeps 45% of Spots for Diversity

The University of Manitoba has announced that its Senate has approved a plan to reserve 45 percent of the slots in its education bachelor's program for various diversity categories. The goal of the effort is to add to the diversity of those who teach in Canada's elementary and secondary schools. The program will go into effect next year and the slots will be reserved for those who are: from Canadian indigenous groups; "racialized persons," including indigenous people from outside of Canada; people who are gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgender; people with disabilities; and people who are economically disadvantaged.

Arrest of Student Leader Sparks Protests in India

Thousands of students and professors across India are protesting after the president of the student union at Jawaharlal Nehru University, in Delhi, was arrested Friday on sedition charges, The Guardian reported. Kanhaiya Kumar was arrested following accusations that “anti-Indian” slogans were used at a campus demonstration marking the anniversary of the execution of Afzal Guru, a Kashmiri man convicted for his involvement in a deadly 2001 attack on India’s parliament. Kumar has denied making anti-Indian statements.

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