Experts in area and language studies discuss how to meet rising student demand when federal budget cuts, vanishing tenure-track positions, and lack of commitment to specialized librarians are hurting their fields.
Al-Quds University is disavowing the efforts of one of its professors, Mohammed S. Dajani, who took 27 students at the Palestinian university where he teaches to Auschwitz, to try to teach empathy with Jews, The Washington Postreported. In another part of the effort, Israeli students were visiting the West Bank to learn from Palestinians about their lives and the hardships they face. A German foundation paid for the program, contrary to rumors that Jewish groups had paid. Dajani has been called a traitor by many Palestinians, although he is standing behind the idea.
Cardiff University abruptly called off plans on Thursday to announce its next chancellor, Wales Online reported. In Wales, as in England, university chancellors' role is largely ceremonial and it is the vice chancellor who is the equivalent of the American university president, but many academics care about who is named chancellor. At Cardiff, the university was expected to announce Thursday that Griff Rhys Jones, a comedian and television star, was to become chancellor. But news that an entertainer was up for the job led some faculty members to push for another term for Martin Evans, a biologist and Nobel laureate.
Tel Aviv University is shutting down its French department, shortly after the University of Haifa made the same decision, Haaretz reported. Michele Bokobza Kahan, a French studies professor at Tel Aviv University, said: “We don’t have enough students and have very few faculty members. We cannot maintain the department like this. We work very hard to provide the students with what they need and it was very moving to see their reactions and how sad they were.”
A major educational exchange organization has been notified that its Moscow office is not in compliance with a Russian law governing foreign nongovernmental organizations. The American Councils for International Education, which last year sent 580 American students and scholars to Russia and 1,200 Russians to the U.S., expects there will be minimal disruptions to its exchange programs as it applies for re-registration of the office.
“We do not expect any interruption at all for study abroad programs for American students. And because this year’s recruitment is already completed for the inbound programs, if we can be reincorporated in the next two months, the impact should be very small,” said Dan E. Davidson, the president of the American Councils.
The organization has directed a moratorium on the activities of its Russian offices, which primarily focus on student recruitment, alumni relations, and back office functions. Davidson said that the organization had passed a compliance review in January but was re-reviewed in March, at which point the interpretative guidance surrounding the law on international NGOs seems to have changed. He said it seemed likely that deteriorating relations between the U.S. and Russian governments over Ukraine may have triggered additional scrutiny of the council’s activities there. “For me, it’s very hard to see it any other way,” Davidson said. “These programs have served both countries well.”
Students were a key force in toppling Ukrainian autocrat Victor Yanukovych. They were on the Maidan battleground in Kiev from beginning to end. They were also instrumental in the 2004 Orange Revolution in the aftermath of that year’s presidential election, which was marred by corruption and outright electoral fraud. Students were active on Tahrir Square in Cairo when Hosni Mubarak was forced from office, and they were active participants in all of the Arab Spring movements.
The beginnings of student-dominated youth movements in “color revolutions” come probably with the Serbian Otpor (“Resistance”) movement, which was started in 1998 as a response to the repressive university and media laws introduced by the regime at the time led by Slobodan Milošević. In 2000, Otpor organized a campaign “Gotov je” (“He is finished”), ultimately leading to Milošević’s defeat in elections. Organizations such as Kmara in Georgia, active in the Rose Revolution in 2003, KelKel in Kyrgystan in the 2005 Tulip Revolution, and Pora in Ukraine were all inspired and trained by Otpor. Students occupied the Taiwan legislature protesting a trade agreement with China for several weeks in March, 2014 — and spearheaded a protest rally of 100,000.
Although the era of student revolutions may have ended a half-century ago, students continue to be active in politics, and they are often a key force in political movements directed toward social change around the world. Students may no longer be at the center of political movements, but they are often indispensable participants, frequently helping to shape the messages, ideologies, and tactics of protest movements.
Students have also been engaged in university politics and policy. German students successfully pushed to have free higher education restored, convincing politicians and the public. Similarly, high school and university students in Chile demonstrated for extended periods to improve educational quality, end for-profit education, and eliminate tuition and fees. They finally succeeded when Michelle Bachelet won the presidency in 2013. In Canada, the “Maple Spring” protests in 2012 emerged from students’ opposition to the government’s announcement of increased tuition fees and led to the fall of Québec’s government.
In some parts of the world, student agitation, often relating to campus issues, cause governments to shut universities for extended periods. This has occurred in Nigeria, and universities in Myanmar were closed for several years after student protests against the military dictatorship. In many of these cases, student demands have combined local campus issues with broader political concerns. They seldom had success in social change, although sometimes university policies or conditions have altered.
Despite continuing activism and impressive but often-ignored success, student activism has not received the scholarly attention that it once did. This may be because movements that may originate on the campus often move quickly off the campus and to the streets and involve many other segments of society. Unlike the 1960s, when students were often both the originators and main participants in protest movements, more recent movements have involved a wider section of the population. Students often lost control over the protests, and in fact in some cases student leaders left the campus to run for public office or participate in a broader leadership coalition. Nonetheless, students have remained a key spearhead for oppositional movements and protests.
The 'Iron Law' of Student Activism
There is an iron law of student political activism. Students can often bring public attention to political issues and, when there is an undercurrent of discontent, may help to create political movements that may destabilize or even defeat regimes. As a social group, students tend to have the leisure of time to exchange and develop ideas and organize within the tightly knit university environment; and the public tends to be sympathetic to students’ concerns.
But students cannot control national politics once a regime is removed. They may infiltrate political parties; but, in the wider political arena, the typically adversary and uncompromising voices of student activists do not get far. Societal politics is generally about political power vested in economic and military resources, in ability to build alliances and forge compromises. While energetic and driven, if students enter the political arena, they may become only a marginal voice — since they seldom possess the substantial and procedural knowledge, experience, and networks required for the larger political stage.
Indeed, in most cases, politics after the end of the social movement moves in directions quite different than advocated by the students. Thus, students may be a precipitating force for social and political change, but never control the outcomes.
Events in both Egypt and Ukraine support the “iron law.” Students in general did not favor the ascendance of the Muslim Brotherhood to power following the Arab Spring, nor were students in general happy with some of the ultranationalist forces that became influential in the recent Ukrainian events.
Success on the Educational Front
Students have sometimes had better success with educational issues. Although massive student demonstrations — and the opposition of British academics — failed to keep high tuition fees from being imposed in England and Wales, students were successful in Germany in rolling back tuition charges so that all of the German states are now committed to free higher education. Protracted demonstrations by high school and university students in Chile resulted in major education reforms and the rollback of previously high student tuition fees.
The contemporary student protests on the educational front tend to be against cuts in public finding of higher education and increases in tuition fees, both of which are associated with neoliberal reforms in higher education. Austerity measures, following the global financial crisis, have accelerated the implementation of such reforms in countries where they previously did not exist. Although the differences between countries continue to be pronounced, a sense exists nevertheless that the national higher education systems are becoming more alike in the sense of being more market-oriented, even in countries with a strong social-welfare tradition.
The fight against tuition fees remains the single most powerful mobilizing force for student activism worldwide. Other social-welfare concerns — such as availability of student housing, subsidized food and transportation — occasionally lead to more localized types of protests initiated by the local student unions and typically also fairly quickly resolved. Quality assurance is almost never an issue salient enough to mobilize students to political action. These questions are handled by the elected student representatives, who consult the universities voicing student expectations and their satisfaction.
21st-Century Student Activism
Many argued that student activism would disappear in the era of higher education massification. Diverse student populations, part-time study for many, the non-elite social backgrounds of most students, the increasingly high cost of higher education in many countries, and other factors all argued against active political and social engagement. This clearly has not been the case. Students remain a potent political and social force, and only the modes of their involvement have been changing. Students are less likely to vote and less likely to join political parties.
But they ARE more likely take part in online petitions, join boycotts, express views in online forums, involve themselves in advocacy social networks, and participate in demonstrations and protest movements. The nature of student activism still very much depends on which part of the globe is being considered. As the World Values Surveys depict, in Western societies where entire value systems have shifted to postmodernism, students are becoming more individualistic and perhaps more interested in subjective well-being, self-expression, and quality of life. There are other societies where democratization, including minority rights, freeing political processes and institutions from corruption, and so forth, remain salient and compelling issues.
Even in postmodern postindustrial societies, some students remain politically engaged — as evidenced by student involvement in the Occupy movements and student participation demonstrations against tuition increases in England. The potential grievances that may mobilize students into student movements for social change are obviously very different, depending on which part of the world is being considered.
Philip G. Altbach is research professor and director of the Center for International Higher Education at Boston College. Manja Klemenčič is postdoctoral fellow in sociology at Harvard University.
Tel Aviv University has called off a lecture by Mohammed Kena’ana, who has served time for helping Hezbollah, Haaretz reported. Ken'ana was invited to speak by left-wing students, but right-wing students and others have been protesting the planned appearance. Originally the university refused to block the appearance, citing the principles of free expression. But the university reversed itself on Sunday and said that it was doing so not because of what the speaker might say, but because of "the threat to public order," and that there had not be enough time to organize security for the event.
In a major development vis-à-vis international scientific collaboration, NASA has suspended the majority of its ties with the Russian federal space agency, Roscosmos, in light of what NASA described as “Russia's ongoing violation of Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity,” CNN reported. Collaboration with Roscosmos will continue, however, in regards to the International Space Station. Since the retirement of NASA’s shuttle program in 2011, the U.S. has had to rely on Russian Soyuz vessels in order to send American astronauts to the station.
Inside Higher Ed reported earlier this week that many academic partnerships between the U.S. and Russia are continuing per usual despite growing tensions between the two governments over Russia’s actions in Ukraine.