National Women's Studies Association joins Israel boycott movement

The National Women's Studies Association becomes the latest scholarly group to join the boycott, divestment and sanctions movement against Israel.

The terrorist attacks in Paris and American academe (essay)

The wrenching dramas that descended on Paris with the German occupation in World War II, the plastic explosives of Algérie Française 20 years later, the uprisings of 1968 and now the Charlie Hebdo and Bataclan massacres have elicited extraordinary waves of empathy in this country. Certainly no other country that does not share a common language with the United States seems so close to this nation’s sympathies, and none has been an ally for longer -- as many people observed in the days following the slaughter of Nov. 13.

Both the historic and recent events have resonated especially deeply with American academics of a certain generation (mine, it goes without saying).

Even Americans little exposed to French literature know something about expatriates like the James Baldwins who gravitated to Paris, and the Ezra Pounds and Ernest Hemingways who lived there for years. Doubtless George Gershwin’s “An American in Paris” (1928) helped enshrine the image (and in reincarnation, one still being celebrated on Broadway) of the American visitor beguiled by the city’s ineffable charms. When good Americans die, dixit Oscar Wilde (way back in 1890), they go to Paris. World War II also took many soldiers to and through Paris, which, thanks to the North American Treaty Organization, remained a major crossroads in the years following.

Paris seemed in that era to be the capital of everything: fashion, cinema, cuisine, literature and art. The war years had helped lift the rising major voices of Albert Camus, Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir and others, and it was as if everyone, especially the young, had to visit Paris to find out what it meant to be “existential.” The lofty presence of Charles de Gaulle lent the country an international prominence that belied the humiliations of the wars. The theater rang with Eugène Ionesco, Jean Genet, Samuel Beckett, Gérard Philippe, Jean-Louis Barrault and Madeleine Renaud, and the cinema effervesced with avant-garde of many stripes. The seemingly contagious influence of numerous maîtres à penser -- besides Sartre, think of Emmanuel Levinas, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Fernand Braudel, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Louis Althusser, Roland Barthes, Michel Foucault, Jacques Lacan -- extended into many disciplines and around the world.

Whether we were studying literature, philosophy, history, art, sociology or anthropology, it was essential to expose oneself to these writers and then to the place where they were concentrated. For a while French was almost, as it had been two centuries earlier, the lingua franca of the intellectual, and Paris the intellectual center of (it seemed) the world.

So it is little wonder that a particular relationship came to exist between the French capital and many American academics and their students. The junior year abroad was practically invented for Paris. There still are many such programs, dating back to the 1920s with the University of Delaware (later Sweet Briar College) program. It was an incredible adventure to set foot in the awe-inspiring corridors and auditoriums of the Sorbonne (since fragmented into many universities), “Sciences Po” and the École Pratique des Hautes Études. After class one honed one’s mind on the sometimes ponderous columns of Le Monde.

There was so much, it seemed, to see, to hear. And to smell: most of America in those days was accustomed to Wonder Bread and had no idea what a bakery was like.

Nor was it just that particular historical moment -- the postwar decades -- that felt cozily ancient but was, below the surface, anything but immobile. The prewar minimalist auto, Citroën’s Deux Chevaux, by its persistence on French streets and roads a sort of symbol of postwar austerity, was rapidly replaced with the sleek, fast and low-slung DS. The ageless smoke-blackened façades of the city’s most venerable monuments were restored to their gleaming original glory by de Gaulle’s cultural affairs minister, André Malraux. The ungainly exclamation point that is Montparnasse Tower (1969-1973) ushered in a new skyscraper era (which Paris subsequently held to the perimeter). And an entirely different version of the emerging postmodern sprung up, where the old Halles had been, in the extravagant, inside-out box called the Centre Pompidou (1977). A renaissance of the technological image of France came with such highly visible innovations as the Concorde (built with Britain, 1976) and the TGV (1981), which was (and still is) light-years ahead of railway in the United States.

It is hard, of course, to say precisely in what way Paris is more enthralling than any other great city for scholars, as well as so many others. It helps that it kept its physical profile low (four or five stories maximum) and that it is relatively compact -- that is, if you limit yourself to the 20 arrondissements. As a consequence is an eminently walkable city. From the Arch of Triumph to the Place de la Concorde is only a kilometer, and you can go by foot, if you want, to Vincennes or even to Versailles. (Whole crowds did it in 1789.) The Seine, the Eiffel Tower, Notre Dame, the domes: so many landmarks are visible from anywhere that orientation is easy.

Ah, what it means to discover, to internalize the verb flâner! The life of a flâneur is all about shop windows, from the great boulevard department stores to sixth- or eighth-arrondissement haute couture to small neighborhood shops everywhere. With time, too, for sitting in the iron chairs of the Luxembourg garden or the wicker chairs at a sidewalk café, watching Parisian life go by, basking in the aromas of pâtisserie, roasting chestnuts or pralines (caramel-coated almonds).

If you look at an 18th-century map of Paris, it is much the same, thanks in large part to that retention of a low skyline. It was much smaller, of course, extending west hardly farther than the Tuileries or east much beyond the Bastille. In fact, its perimeters then are essentially what Baron Haussmann was to turn into the Grands Boulevards during the Second Empire. Ten centuries of buildings sit side by side and, at the same time, assimilate the modern world in ways that no New World city can imitate.

American historians of France have wrangled over the concept but not the experience of what is sometimes rightly or wrongly labeled “Frenchness.” I don’t quite believe in it. (The French are awfully like us.) But then what is it that keeps tugging at -- if you’ll pardon the sentimentality -- the heartstrings?

Philip Stewart is the Benjamin E. Powell Emeritus Professor of Romance Studies at Duke University.

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U of Melbourne Criticized for Buildings Named for Racists

American colleges are not the only ones facing criticism for buildings named for people who advocated racist ideas and policies. The Age reported that students and others at the University of Melbourne have identified five buildings named for early professors at the institution. These professors advocated the killing of Aboriginal Australians, sterilizing them and taking away their children, among other policies. The university has said that it is studying how to better serve Aboriginals and deal with Australia's past history of discriminating against them.

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'Brain Boomerang' for Chinese Science

Increasing numbers of young Chinese scientists intend to study outside their home country, but to return within five years, according to a survey that is part of Nature Publishing Group's new paper, "Turning Point: Chinese Science in Transition." The paper sees much more confidence of young Chinese researchers in the development of science in China. But many believe that China must do much more in terms of funding basic research and being willing to support studies that may be risky and not have clear paths to commercial success.

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Korean Professors Charged in Publishing Scandal

Authorities in South Korea plan to indict about 200 professors in a scheme in which they are alleged to have republished other people's textbooks by simply putting a new cover and their names on the work of other scholars, The Korea Herald reported. Many of the professors have already admitted to these copyright violations, and they could face dismissal from their universities. Publishers are alleged to have looked the other way or even encouraged the practice.

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'Education at a Glance' Published

The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development’s annual “Education at a Glance” report, an encyclopedic collection of education-related statistics across 46 countries, is being published today. The report includes statistics for the 34 countries that belong to the OECD -- whose membership is heavily tilted toward Western Europe and North America -- as well as for Argentina, Brazil, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, India, Indonesia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Saudi Arabia and South Africa.

Among the findings, the U.S. ranked fifth among the 34 OECD countries in terms of higher education attainment rates.

Unemployment rates for Americans varied according to level of education -- ranging from 3.7 percent for those who have completed higher education to 10.6 percent for those without a high school diploma. All rates were below the OECD averages -- a contrast to 2010, when the U.S. had above-average unemployment rates in all categories.

Adults in the U.S. with a higher education degree earn 76 percent more than their counterparts with just a high school diploma, a statistic that exceeds the average wage premium across OECD countries (60 percent) by a considerable amount. American students with master’s and doctoral degrees earn 143 percent more than their counterparts with just a high school diploma.

In terms of higher education characteristics, the report notes that American higher education has comparatively high rates of part-time study. The number of graduates from U.S. science and engineering programs lags OECD averages: for example, 17 percent of all bachelor’s degree recipients in the U.S. have studied science or engineering, compared to a 22 percent average across OECD countries.

The U.S. remains the leading destination for international students, hosting 19 percent of all international students in 2013.

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Middle East Studies Group Issues Statement on Discrimination

DENVER -- The board of the Middle East Studies Association issued a statement on Monday condemning “the increasing frequency and intensity of violent acts against civilians taking place in countries around the world” and expressing alarm “at the related rise in the stereotyping and vilification of people of Middle East or Muslim background.”

"We urge, therefore, those with responsibility for United States policy in the Middle East and the Islamic world to avail themselves of the insights of scholarship as they seek to understand the background of these violent acts and to frame responses to them," the statement says.

The full statement, issued during the association’s annual business meeting, is available here. MESA members did not introduce any other new business at that meeting.

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Debate on Yoga and 'Cultural Appropriation' at Ottawa

The Student Federation of the University of Ottawa was facing considerable criticism this weekend after The Ottawa Sun reported that the organization called off free yoga classes because of fear that yoga is a form of "cultural appropriation." An email from an official with the federation's center for students with disabilities to the yoga instructor who was told she was not needed this semester said that "yoga has been under a lot of controversy lately due to how it is being practiced," and which cultures those practices "are being taken from." The email added that because those cultures "have experienced oppression, cultural genocide and diasporas due to colonialism and Western supremacy … we need to be mindful of this and how we express ourselves while practicing yoga."

Two vice presidents of the federation, reached by Inside Higher Ed Sunday evening, said the issue of cultural appropriation was one of several factors at play in putting yoga "on hold" this semester, and that it could return next semester, after a review of all of the issues, including but not limited to cultural appropriation.

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Anthropologists overwhelmingly vote to boycott Israeli universities


Anthropology professors vote overwhelmingly to back boycott of Israeli universities. Issue now goes to their association membership.

American U of Beirut Will Restore Tenure System

American University of Beirut announced Friday that it is restoring a tenure system for faculty members. The university suspended the use of tenure in 1985, at the height of the Lebanese Civil War, when Malcolm Kerr, president of AUB, was assassinated and many feared for the university's future. Tenure is being restored based on a vote of the Faculty Senate and of the university board. Faculty committees will now develop systems for tenure reviews -- both for new faculty members and those who have been working as faculty members at the university without tenure.

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