In 2009, the Association of Research Libraries urged its members  to stop agreeing to nondisclosure agreements on pricing of journal packages, finding that these pacts were undercutting the ability of universities to negotiate fair deals. The Cornell University Library has now taken a public stand consistent with the ARL recommendation. A statement  posted on the library website explains: "Occasionally in licenses governing electronic resources, publishers will request that the Cornell University Library (CUL) treat the subscription price as confidential information and not disclose it to third parties. In the past, some libraries have tolerated these clauses in the belief that they might result in a lower cost. This, however, is a position that CUL can no longer accept. It has become apparent to the library community that the anticompetitive conduct engaged in by some publishing firms is in part a result of the inclusion of nondisclosure agreements in contracts."