The American Economic Association saw a 2.7 percent rise in the number of job announcements for Ph.D.s during 2012, continuing a pattern of recovery from sharp drops as the economic downturn started in 2008. Economics is a discipline where those with doctorates have long had considerable opportunities in the business and finance world, not just in academe. This year's numbers show a 5.7 percent increase for jobs in academe, and a 3.6 percent drop for nonacademic positions. As has been the case in recent years, the top field of specialization in job postings (by far) was mathematical and quantitative methods. That was followed by (in order) microeconomics, international economics and macroeconomics.