In the 'Shadow of the Valley'
A syllogism: Human attention tends to wander; students are human; therefore, students' attention will wander.
Too many major topics, too many complex PowerPoint slides and too many digressions result in information overload. Students tend to disengage, and even after they finish the crossword puzzle, they don't tune back in.
Most teachers are well aware of the spacy eyeball look, but what to do? Here are some strategies to prevent wandering and increase interest.
Poor preparation (by students or teachers) creates a bad connection in the learning process. Students who have finished the assigned readings and homework will often have something to say. Those who aren't prepared can certainly listen attentively (we hope), but they will have much more information to process than if they have read primary or supporting material in advance.
In all fairness, and recognizing the human condition, the time of day can also contribute to wandering attention. Most teachers whose classes begin after lunch cannot help but notice the number of glazed eyes or count the heads on desks. Early classes can also be soporific. (The definition of "early" can range from nine a.m. to noon or beyond.) However, students who sign up for early classes usually know what they are getting into.
The truth is, though, that whatever the time, after the initial invigoration of starting a new class day, interest wanes, especially if the only thing students have to do is listen. Research on cognition and retention has shown that any class period or "learning episode" has periods of "prime time" and "down time." Prime time, when students are at their sharpest (usually the first 10 to 15 minutes of a class), is appropriate for introducing new information or coming to closure on old material.
According to David A. Sousa ( How the Brain Learns, Corwin Press, 2000), "practice is appropriate for the down-time segment" -- the valley that occurs after the introduction of new material. Practice can include analytical or evaluative questions such as: "How do the medical malpractice laws affect health care?" "Will the governor's new proposals improve health care?" Or practice can mean simulations, case analyses, class presentations, etc. Questions and answers are also appropriate for the "down time" segment of a class because they enable students to demonstrate their knowledge and their ability to apply knowledge to a new situation.
Not all questions need to be answered immediately. A rhetorical question can stimulate thinking by causing students to formulate an answer and focusing them on a particular topic. However, teachers who ask too many rhetorical questions can create barriers to learning because students are prevented from answering. Turning a rhetorical question into an actual question is an effective way to test comprehension or to encourage interactive discussion.
Effective questions of any variety encourage collaboration in the learning process. Confusing questions can, of course, demotivate. When asked the following double question -- "What led to the stock market crash, and how can we prevent this from happening again?" -- students could respond, "which question do you want us to answer?"
Taken one at a time, each of these questions can stimulate the critical thinking skills of analysis, synthesis and evaluation.
Another way of engaging students is to facilitate a discussion that enables all students to participate. Discussion may not be the best strategy in a statistics course, but in other courses a discussion on a general topic will call on students to demonstrate knowledge, while giving them a sense of "personal discovery."
Discussions might be stimulated by a question: "What should the priorities of the new president be?" or by a statement, "The war in (fill in the blank) is just and moral." A danger of discussions, however, is that they often become lectures in disguise if teachers dominate by implying their own bias or giving too much information.
Discussions can also take the form of a debate. When students prepare to debate, they sharpen their own critical abilities and stimulate critical response from those who are only observers. Again, not all courses are appropriate for debate, but in the realm of academic discourse much is and should be debatable. Bringing the students into "the debate" enriches learning by causing them to test and defend their assertions.
Student activity in general can make the journey through the shadow of the valley proceed more directly. Strategies such as dyads -- small group discussion in class or short and well-prepared reports by students -- will create a context for learning that is centered on the student. The teacher retains responsibility for determining the general learning outcome and preventing student activities from being a waste of time, but strategies other than or in addition to lecturing can promote learning.
If a teacher determines that a "standard lecture" is still the best strategy, student interest can be stimulated in at least three ways. First, change your voice: emphasize verbs when you want to emphasize action, nouns when you want to emphasize the result of an action. Second, give a concrete example that everyone can understand: "Let me explain what a 'dent-puller' is." Third, and most important, provide internal summaries. When you distill a discussion -- "so we have covered the three main methods of controlling stage fright: preparation, eye contact, breathing" -- students will pay close attention, often writing down the summary.
Both teaching and learning require strategies. For the teacher, building-in the concept of "practice" (encouraging students to verbalize and support their ideas) is a strategy for maintaining interest and attention. Students who develop the skills of personal discovery are more likely to retain their knowledge because they will gain a sense of intellectual ownership. When the process of learning becomes collaborative, students and teachers proceed together on a well-defined course through the "shadow of the valley."
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