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Wiley, an academic publisher, has announced that it is closing 19 journals amid a massive influx of fake papers, The Wall Street Journal reported Tuesday. The publisher has retracted more than 11,300 “compromised” studies over the past two years. The Journal reported that at least two other academic publishers also have retracted hundreds of fake studies each.

The 19 journals were all previously owned by Hindawi, an Egyptian publishing company with a portfolio of about 250 journals that Wiley purchased in 2021. A Wiley spokesperson acknowledged that some of the journals had been impacted by fraudulent studies, but attributed the closures to other factors, such as low submission rates.

The fraudulent papers come from “paper mills,” businesses that charge their clients a fee to list them as an author on a fake study and submit it to academic journals. Paper mills often submit to multiple journals at once to have the best chance at getting published.

Wiley and Hindawi previously shut down four journals due to interference from paper mills in May 2023.