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Three scholars have been named winners of the Nobel Prize in physics “for experiments with entangled photons, establishing the violation of Bell inequalities and pioneering quantum information science.”

The three are Alain Aspect of Université Paris-Saclay and École Polytechnique, in Palaiseau, France; John F. Clauser of J. F. Clauser & Associates in Walnut Creek, Calif.; and Anton Zeilinger of the University of Vienna.

The announcement said, “Alain Aspect, John Clauser and Anton Zeilinger have each conducted groundbreaking experiments using entangled quantum states, where two particles behave like a single unit even when they are separated. Their results have cleared the way for new technology based upon quantum information.”