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Women and underrepresented racial and ethnic minority scholars are less likely than other groups to be last authors, an indicator of career independence, says a new paper in American Economic Association Papers and Proceedings. Lead author Gerald Marschke, an associate professor of economics at the State University of New York at Albany, and colleagues applied big data methods to millions of biomedical sciences papers with U.S. authors, finding that gender gaps are smaller among blacks and Hispanics than among non-Hispanic whites. “Our analysis is timely given serious concerns with underrepresentation of women and minorities in biomedicine” and other science, technology, engineering and math fields, the authors wrote.