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Male students speak in college classrooms 1.6 times as often as women, according to a new academic article published in Gender & Society based on 95 hours of observation in nine classrooms across multiple disciplines at an elite institution.

The researchers found that, compared with female students, male students are more likely to speak without raising their hands, to interrupt and to engage in prolonged conversations. The language of the male students was more assertive, while the language of the women students was more hesitant and apologetic.

The study, entitled "Who Speaks and Who Listens: Revisiting the Chilly Climate in College Classrooms," was done by Janice McCabe, an associate professor of sociology at Dartmouth College, and Jennifer J. Lee, a 2017 Dartmouth graduate whose senior thesis focused on this research. Lee is now a Ph.D. student at Indiana University.